Volume 29

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XXIXMobility in the Eastern Baltics (15th–17th Centuries)

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XXIX

Editor: Dainius Elertas in cooperation with Vasilijus Safronovas and Vacys Vaivada

Klaipėda, 2014


In this volume of the series Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Lithuanian, German, British and Polish historians analyse different phenomena of mobility and communications in the east Baltic region during the Early Modern Period. Papers in English and Lithuanian deal with the mental, social and economic expressions of mobility. The mobility of ideas and world-views is analysed in the context of Christianisation and the Reformation. Changes in the status of specific localities that were caused by the activation of trade and transit are examined. Family and kinship relations are investigated as a basis for social mobility through the cases of Tilsit and Gdansk. The chapter on source publications presents documents relating to 17th-century Klaipėda (Memel), showing communications with the Baltic region, and especially with Sweden, which dominated the region in the 17th century.


Editor’s Note
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Introduction: Sit venia verbo
(author of introduction Dainius Elertas)
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Rafał KUBICKI
Remarks on the Process of Institutionalisation of Mendicant Orders and their Role in Pastoral Work Based on the Example of the Dominion of the Teutonic Order in Prussia from the 13th to the Early-16th Century

Abstract and Full Text
The conditions and the environment of the mendicant religious orders (Dominicans, Franciscan Conventuals, Franciscan Observants, Carmelites, and Augustinians) in the holdings of the Teutonic Order in Prussia differed from those in Western Europe. In newly built castles and newly founded cities, German and Polish-speaking communities predominated; while Prussians, unfamiliar with the basics of Christianity, prevailed in rural territories. The network of parish churches declined towards the eastern and northern boundaries of the state. Therefore, the mendicant orders operated there on a different model. An examination of its characteristics is carried out by means of an analysis of the stages, development and dynamics of the settlement of mendicant orders in Prussia. An attempt is made to identify the organisation of their provision and the supporting milieu. Particular attention is paid to the impact of mendicant orders on the deepening of the faith of the local Prussian population in the eastern part of the Teutonic Order’s holdings.
Key Words: Teutonic Order, Prussia, mendicant orders, Dominicans, Christianisation, Prussians, monks.

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S. C. ROWELL
Church Court Records as Evidence for the Christianisation of Lithuanian Society in the Late-15th and Early-16th Century

Abstract and Full Text
This article surveys evidence of Lithuanian social and religious life during the long fifteenth century as revealed by consistory court records from the sees of Płock, Gniezno, Lutsk and Cracow. The dynamics of church court evidence coincide with those of other aspects of Catholic life in the Grand Duchy. Building churches, chantry chapels, funding mansionary priests, selecting particular Masses to be celebrated by your chantry priest (Salve sancta Parens, the Five Wounds of Christ, the Seven Joys of Our Lady), going on pilgrimage, taking part in a procession, venerating the Blessed Sacrament, sending supplications to Rome to obtain permission to own a portable altar or choose a confessor all become much more common in the later decades of the fifteenth century. Cases before the consistory courts in Płock, Gniezno, Vilnius and Lutsk involve a wide social group and deal with a broad range of issues (not just matrimonial disputes or the hiring out of benefices between priests). What we do not find is any obsession with paganism, no use of pagan as an insult, no account of ‘pagan’ practices (or even folk customs, which later become tarred with an ideological brush). Lithuanian dioceses are clearly integrated into the Polish metropolitan sees (Gniezno and also to a lesser degree, Lwów).
Key Words: Catholic Church, consistory court, Gniezno, Lithuania, Lutsk, Poland.

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Paweł KRAS
The Religious Policy of Sigismund I and Sigismund II Augustus in the Reformation Period: status quaestionis

Abstract and Full Text
The article examines the role of the last Jagiellonian monarchs, Sigismund I (1506-1548) and his son Sigismund II Augustus (1548-1572), in promoting and securing religious peace in the multi-confessional society of the 16th-century Rzeczpospolita. The author argues that the Jagiellonian dynasty, which ascended to the Polish throne in 1386 and ruled until 1572, contributed significantly to the rise of religious pluralism in Poland and Lithuania, and paved the way for a mechanism of tolerance which made it possible for religious groups to live together and to respect their religious diversity. The author analyses the anti-heretical laws passed by Sigismund I in the 1520s, and Sigismund II in the 1550s, which were intended to suppress the dissemination of Reformation ideas. In these documents, both monarchs declared their loyalty to the Roman Church, and threatened followers of the Reformation with severe penalties. All these documents give an insight into the religious policy of the Polish kings. Anti-heretical legislation was just one part of a more complex and sophisticated policy of the Jagiellonian kings, which aimed at preserving the religious status quo in the multi-ethnic and multi-confessional Rzeczpospolita.
Key Words: Reformation, Poland, religious policy, confessional relations.

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Wioletta PAWLIKOWSKA-BUTTERWICK
Clergymen on the Move: Journeys by Vilnan Canons and Prelates in the 16th Century

Abstract and Full Text
Mobility and journeys were an integral part of the life of intellectual elites, including the clergy, in the Early Modern Period. Taking to the road was often the outcome of the functions they performed: arrival at the destination was the main aim. In the case of pilgrimages, both the destination and the route were important. Itinerant clergy in search of sustenance became a disciplinary problem for their superiors. This article is based on records of journeys undertaken by canons and prelates of Vilnius Cathedral.
Key Words: journeys, Cathedral chapters, Vilnius, mobility, Early Modern Period, ecclesiastical history.

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Dainius ELERTAS
Kaip miestelis virto miestu: karčemų plėtra Tilžėje 1514–1552 metais
EN title: A Settlement Growing into a Town: The Expansion of Inns in Tilsit from 1514 to 1552

Abstract and Full Text
The paper analyses the relationship between the growth of the transit infrastructure and the developments in Tilsit in the period 1514 to 1552. The place of Tilsit in the competition between the merchants of Gdansk, Königsberg and Kaunas for the transit of goods by the River Neman is discussed. The paper reveals how, due to the geo-political circumstances, Königsberg managed to establish itself and to subordinate Tilsit to its trading system. It examines how and why Tilsit turned from being an outer castle settlement (Flecken) to the first town established in the Duchy of Prussia. The dynamics of the growth of the number of inns in Tilsit, their ownership, and the official and family relationships of the owners are examined, as is the weight and the role of innkeepers in the process of Tilsit turning into a town.
Key Words: Prussia, Tilsit, the River Neman, inns, transit, settlement.

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Ewa BOJARUNIEC
Social Advancement among Patrician Families in Gdańsk in the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period as Exemplified by the Ferber Family

Abstract and Full Text
The core of Gdańsk patricians consisted of a limited number of families. Some of them managed to build up and maintain their power for as long as 300 years. There were different ways of establishing patrician families and of emphasising their social status. The story of the rise and accession to the nobility of the Ferber family reveals the practical side of the strategy and tactics of the implementation of such goals. Due to purposeful actions and the exploitation of favourable circumstances, the sons of Johann Ferber attained the highest posts in the region, with Maurice becoming the Bishop of Warmia, and Eberhardt the most distinguished Burgomaster of Gdańsk. In 1515, the family were accepted into the nobility by the King of Poland Sigismund I and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. This was made possible not only by the family belonging to the economic elite of the country, but also by the strong and supportive environment. This paper seeks to highlight the environment by analysing the kinship, social, and official relationships of the Ferbers in the 15th to the 16th centuries before and after their accession to the nobility.
Key Words: Gdańsk, Ferber family, patricians, noble clans, social advancement.

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SOURCE PUBLICATIONS

Axel E. WALTER
Simon Dach der Ältere – Bemerkungen zur Familie des Dichters Simon Dach (des Jüngeren) in Memel/Klaipėda. Mit einer Edition von drei Briefen des älteren Dach an den schwedischen Reichskanzler Axel Oxenstierna
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Dainius ELERTAS
1678 metai viešosios informacijos rate: kelios naujienlaiškių žinutės apie Klaipėdą
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BOOK REVIEWS

Marius ŠČAVINSKAS
Knyga apie pamirštus kryžininkus
GŁADYSZ, Mikołaj. The Forgotten Crusaders: Poland and the Crusader Movement in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (The Northern World: North Europe and the Baltic c. 400–1700 A.D. Peoples, Economies and Cultures, Vol. 56). Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012 – xxvi+433 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-18551-7; ISSN 1569-1462
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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Migration und Kulturtransfer im Ostseeraum während der Frühen Neuzeit (Acta Bibliothecae Regiae Stockholmiensis, 80). Hrsg. von Otfried CZAIKA, Heinrich HOLZE. Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket, 2012. – 237 S. ISBN 978-91-7000-276-2
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Valda KĻAVA
Preussen und Livland im Zeichen der Reformation (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für Ost- und Westpreussische Landesforschung, Bd. 28). Hrsg. von Arno MENTZEL-REUTERS, Klaus NEITMANN. Osnabrück: fibre, 2014. – 366 S. ISBN 978-3-938400-99-9
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Gvido STRAUBE
WAHRMANN, Carl Christian. Kommunikation der Pest. Seestädte des Ostseeraums und die Bedrohung durch die Seuche 1708-1713 (Historische Forschungen, Bd. 98). Berlin: Duncker & Humblot Verlag, 2012 – 393 S. ISBN 978-3-428-13881-4
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Jānis ĶERUSS
Menschen in Bewegung: Migration und Deportation aus dem Baltikum zwischen 1850 und 1950 (Nordost-Archiv, N.F. Bd. XIX/2010). Hrsg. von Detlef HENNING. Lüneburg: Nordost-Institut, 2010. – 371 S. ISSN 0029-1595
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Dovilė BATAITYTĖ
Tourismus im Ostseeraum = Tourism in the Baltic Region (Nordost-Archiv, N.F. Bd. XX/2011). Hrsg. von Karsten BRÜGGEMANN. Lüneburg: Nordost-Institut, 2012. – 403 S. ISSN 0029-1595
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DISCUSSIONS

Dovilė BATAITYTĖ
Apie sunkumus, kurie buvo įveikti: Dovilės Troskovaitės disertacijos gynimo apžvalga
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Manvydas VITKŪNAS
Šarvų tyrimuose – didžiulis žingsnis pirmyn. Pauliaus Bugio disertacijos „Šarvuotė Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje XIII a. antrojoje pusėje – XVI a. viduryje (archeologijos duomenimis)“ gynimo apžvalga
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