Volume 26

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 26Kristijono Donelaičio epochos kultūrinės inovacijos
Cultural Innovations of the Epoch of Kristijonas Donelaitis

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XXVI

Editor Silva Pocytė

Klaipėda, 2013

(author of introduction Silva Pocytė)


Prūsijos Lietuva Prūsijos istorijos kontrastų fone
EN title: Prussian Lithuania against the Background of the Contrasts of the Prussian History

Abstract and Full Text
The creative heritage of Kristijonas Donelaitis makes us focus our attention on Prussian Lithuania as an ethnocultural region that provided the poet with significant creative impetuses; simultaneously, Donelaitis is associated with the Kingdom of Prussia as the space that formed his personality, the contours of his worldview, and his national self-awareness. To deeper understand the works of Kristijonas Donelaitis as a significant layer of Lithuanian cultural heritage, it is important to study in-depth the modern approaches to Prussian history and, in that context, the stereotypical interpretation of some aspects of the history of Prussian Lithuania in Lithuanian historiography of the 20th c., relevant to the present. The article analyzes the essential characteristic of Prussian history emphasized by its contemporary researchers, i.e. the spirit of contrast: the interchanging periods of modernity and regress have allegedly predetermined “the special way” of German history, Sonderweg, which preconditioned the dominance of nationalsocialism in 1933. Moreover, the issue of the contrast as the predominating motiff in the master narrative (Meistererzählung) which makes a strong impact on the collective memory is highlighted, as well as the reflection on the issue in the field of the studies of the history of Prussian Lithuania.
Key Words: Prussian Lithuania, the Kingdom of Prussia, Donelaitis, a contrast, Sonderweg, stereotypes.


Kristijono Donelaičio kūrybos europietiškosios ištakos
EN title: European Origins of the Poetry of Kristijonas Donelaitis

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes the links of the poetry of Kristijonas Donelaitis with the origins of European literature, and primarily with the literature of Antiquity (Virgil and Hesiod). The systemic reference to the genre of “The Seasons” leads to an assumption that the classic of Lithuanian literature, born in East Prussia, educated in Königsberg University, and having spent all his lifetime in the heterogeneous environment of Prussian Lithuania, wrote his masterpiece inspired by didactic idylls of Antiquity. Virgil was referred to and quoted by Donelaitis in his letter written in German, and Donelaitis could have read and analyzed Hesiod‘s Erga in the years of his studies. The juxtaposition of “The Seasons” and “Works and Days” demonstrates the layers shared by the two poets: in addition to the relationships of the structure and the genre, there are numerous links at the semantic level that intertextually thematize the categories of nature, time, work, and religion.
Key Words: the epoch of Enlightenment, intertextuality, the genre of idyll in Antiquity, a didactic category, the categories of nature and time.


„Iš menkų daiktų daugsyk dyvai pasidaro“, arba kaip menka tampa didžiu
EN title: ‘For from the Small Acorns the Giant Oaks Grow Up’, or How the Poor Turns into the Great

Abstract and Full Text
The article discusses the conscious choice of Kristijonas Donelaitis to become a priest of a Lithuanian rural community and to take care of the parishers’ faith and morals. The Enlightenment-related position of the poet predetermined the expression of his poetical vocation to a great extent. By recognizing the significance of each element of the world created by the will of God, Donelaitis consciously turned his glance towards ‘minor’ things or the ‘lowest’ substances. He consciously chose to write about the most deprived, the most backward peasant-boor of the remotest Prussian periphery: about him and for him, in the declining language of the minority. One might ask whether the choice of that conservative addressee, the ‘smallest’ in the Kingdom of Prussia, did not paradoxically account for the modernity of Donelaitis‘ works in the context of the that time poetry. By the violation of the aesthetical standards of his time, Donelaitis unexpectedly forced his way into the ranks of the best poets of Europe and not only became one of them, but far surpassed them. A rural priest of a Pussian province with his weak voice and poor health, unknown to Europe, for a wink of an eye became perhaps the greatest European poet. For a wink of an eye, as Europe at the time did not learn about him. However, he remained great for us, representatives of a small, declining, and emigrating nation, and stayed with us to remind us of the true values of life.
Key Words: Kristijonas Donelaitis, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Wolff, the Enlightenment, vocation, poet, works of poetry, boor, nature.


Kristijono Donelaičio epochos politiniai ir dvasiniai bruožai
EN title: Political and Spiritual Characteristics of Kristijonas Donelaitis’ Epoch

Abstract and Full Text
The article deals with the political and spiritual characteristics of Kristijonas Donelaitis’ epoch that affected the formation of the pioneer of the Lithuanian secular literature and made an impact on the content of his literary works. The significance of the political and spiritual reforms for the preservation of the language and culture of Prussian Lithuanians via the church and school is highlighted; attention is drawn to the fact the the modernization of the state had a positive effect on the linguistic and educational situation of ethnic minorities due to which the intellectuals of the Enlightenment epoch paid attention to the cultural and linguistic situation of the ethnic group of Lithuanians.
Key Words: Kristijonas Donelaitis, an epoch, spiritual, political, characteristic.


Karaliaučiaus universiteto Teologijos fakultetas Donelaičio studijų metais
EN title: The Faculty of Theology in Königsberg in the Study Years of Donelaitis’

Abstract and Full Text
Donelaitis studied at Königsberg University at the time when the effects of the changes in the structure and staff of the Faculty of Theology started to surface. Due to the pro-pietist staff policy of Friedrich Wilhelm, the vacancies in the Departments were filled with the representatives of that trend; pietists had accounted for the majority of the body of professors since 1733. Donelaitis was likely to have mixed with professors Schulz, Kiepke, Salthenius, and Arnold more frequently than with their opponents Quant, Langhansen, and Lysius, especially because since the summer of 1736 Quant did not have any longer to give regular lectures. Despite the church and the higher education policies at the University, as well as the disturbancies caused in its environment by the implementation of the reforms, there were no significant theological differences between the seven heads of the Departments: all of them represented the traditional Lutheranism. However, one ought to pay attention to the specificity of their philosophical views. Unlike the pietists of the University of Halle, as well as Quant and Langhansen, Schulz was the first to advocate the synthesis of the Lutheran theology, the emphasis on the pietist praxis pietatis, and Wolffpromoted cultura intellectus. The efforts of Schulz to develop rational pietism that would be obviously related to Wolff’s philosophy not only by the methodological view, but also by the balanced ratio between the reason and faith, were especially supported by Arnold.
Key Words: Königsberg, the Faculty of Theology, pietism, praxis pietatis, cultura intellectus.


Karaliaučiaus bibliotekų aplinka Donelaičio laikais. Rinkinių likimas po 1945 metų
EN title: The Environment of Königsberg Library in the Time of Donelaitis. The Fate of Collections after 1945

Abstract and Full Text
The present article is a contribution to the research in the intellectual biography of Kristijonas Donelaitis. It aims to discuss the environment of Königsberg libraries in mid-18th c. not only as an institutional, but also an intellectual environment of the studies of Donelaitis which ought to be analyzed more in depth than it had been analyzed before. The first part of the article summarizes the efforts of Lithuanian, German, and Russian schollars after 1945 to save and reconstruct the funds of Königsberg libraries destroyed during WW2. The second part presents the environment of the ancient Königsberg libraries as a space of communication opportunities where student Donelaitis could find the principal literature. The context raises another issue that is merely mentioned in the article: next to the “public“ libraries, there was a number of personal collections in Königsberg. Some of them belonged to professors of theology whose lectures were attended by Donelaitis. Therefore, one can reasonably raise a question about the impact of scholars in Königsberg on Donelaitis in the years of his studies.
Key Words: history of library, research in the reading matter, biography of Donelaitis, Königsberg.


Prūsijos Lietuvos giesmynai Donelaičio laikais
EN title: The Hymnals of Prussian Lithuania in the Time of Donelaitis

Abstract and Full Text
Kristijonas Donelaitis (1714-1780), who was born and lived in Prussian Lithuania, was a Lutheran priest, therefore, it was not surprising that his poem “The Seasons”, as it was observed a long time ago, reflected the Lutheran ideology prevailing in Prussia at that time. To date, the links of Donelaitis’ poetry with the that time hymnals of Prussian Lithuania have not been paid sufficient attention to, although the texts of a high artistic level published in the hymnals, mainly translated from the German originals, were bound to contribute to the mature poetic expression demonstrated in the writing of the poem to be considered the first masterpiece of the Lithuanian belles lettres. The issue was raised in the monograph by L. Gineitis “Kristijonas Donelaitis ir jo epocha” [Kristijonas Donelaitis and his Epoch], however, the author did not indicate the particular hymnals by means of which Donelaitis could have become acquainted with the church hymns that influenced his poetic imagination. That is understandable, since, during the Soviet times. Some important hymnals stored in the foreign libraries were unknown to, or unavailable to, Lithuanian scholars.
Key Words: Prussian Lithuania, the Lutheran Church, hymnals, church hymns, translated literature.


Muzikinis gyvenimas Rytų Prūsijoje Kristijono Donelaičio laikais (XVIII a.)
EN title: Musical Life in East Prussia in the Time of Kristijonas Donelaitis (The 18th C.)

Abstract and Full Text
The article explores the musical culture of East Prussia of the 18th c. in different forms of its expression. The epoch of Enlightenment provided a new impetus for the development of the culture in the region. The Protestant Lutheran hymnody was developing, and the tradition of Evangelical surinkimai (prayer hours held in private homes by lay preachers (German: Stundenhalters)) was progressing. Königsberg University was of great significance for the promotion of the regional culture. In the 18th c., the East Prussian school of composition was born, different techniques of instrumental ensemble and solo music making started developing, the house music making traditions were gaining popularity, and big cities had the first musical theatres. It was in that context that the personality of Donelaitis and the character of his cultural activity was maturing and developing.
Key Words: East Prussia, Prussian Lithuania, Reformation, Protestantism, a Lutheran hymn, hymnody, hymnals, song, music, composer, Königsberg, university, theatre.


Bernhart JÄHNIG
Evangelikų ištrėmimas iš Zalcburgo ir jų priėmimas bei apgyvendinimas Prūsijoje
EN title: Exile of Evangelicals from Salzburg and their Acceptance and Accomodation in Prussia

Abstract and Full Text
As early as the 18th c., Archbishop Firmian of Salzburg sought to establish counter-Reformation in the area of his influence. As he failed to get any support from peasants, in 1731, he forcefully made about 20,000 of the local residents leave the Archdiocese of Salzburg. The Evangelical population of the Empire were the first to protest against that. Then, King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm I invited those displaced from home to come to his kingdom. About 16,000 of them accepted the invitation and, observed by the public, via Berlin arrived in the land later called East Prussia. In the 18th c., due to the famine and especially the Great Plague, the former Duchy of Prussia had lost about one third of its population, and the eastern region of the country was struck especially hard. For King Friedrich Wilhelm I, who was implementing the programme of repopulation of the deserted areas of his country, the opportunity to accomodate the Salzburgers deprived of their homeland was like a gift from God. It was impossible any more to accomodate them in individual villages, especially in the north-eastern part of the country, however, they still formed a colony (Colonie) which had for a long time cherished the sense of community, before in the end of the 19th c. their descendants assimilated with the local population and adopted their dialect.
Key Words: accomodation, Archbishop Firmian of Salzburg, the Evangelical Church, Salzburgers, exile.


Martynas Liudvikas Rėza ir pirmoji lietuvių grožinės literatūros publikavimo programa Prūsijos Lietuvoje
EN title: Martin Ludwig Rhesa and the First Programme of Publishing Lithuanian Secular Literature in Prussian Lithuania

Abstract and Full Text
The article presents the first programme of publishing Lithuanian secular literature in Prussian Lithuania proposed and carried out by Martin Ludwig Rhesa, professor of Königsberg University. The first publication of Donelaitis’ poem The Seasons prepared by Rhesa will be discussed by assessing Rhesa’s contribution to it: the editing, translation, and provision of the scientific part (a research study-article and scientific comments). The first reviews of The Seasons which started appearing in Königsberg and Germany in the period of 1818 to 1820 will be examined.
Key Words: Prussian Lithuania, Martin Ludwig Rhesa, Lithuanian literature, Kristijonas Donelaitis, Königsberg.


Studentai kaip kultūrinės komunikacijos veikėjai. Karaliaučiaus universitetas ir jame studijavę lenkų studentai (1770–1825)
EN title: Students as Actors of Cultural Communication. Königsberg University and Polish Students in It (1770–1825)

Abstract and Full Text
On the turn of the 19th c., the composition of the students in Königsberg University changed. After the 3rd Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795), the number of Polish students in it went up, however, after the foundation of the Duchy of Warsaw, it immediately dropped again. The Polish students who had studied abroad grew up into famous figures of culture and science. They promoted the development of cultural and scientific centres and of their network in Europe.
Key Words: students, Poles, Königsberg, University, communication.


Apie liuteronybės diferenciaciją Rytų Prūsijoje. Pastabos dėl surinkimų Mozūrijoje XVIII a. pabaigoje – XIX a. pradžioje
EN title: On the Differentiation of Lutheranism in East Prussia. Notes on Surinkimai in Mazury in the Late 18th – the Early 19th C.

Abstract and Full Text
The so-called “Group of Saints” (Heilige) formed in Mazury, in the County of Neidenburg (Kreis Neidenburg), in the late 18th c. and was most active in the parishes of Jerutki (Jerutten), Rozogi (Friedrichshof), and Wielbark (Willenberg). The present article, based on the documents stored in Secret State Archives Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation in Berlin-Dahlem, discusses its activities. In particular, an effort is made to present the reconstructions of the essential policies and postulates of the activity of the group members. The author tries to answer the question about the period of time that the activities of surinkimininkai (Gemeinschaftsbewegung; participants of prayer hours held in private homes by lay preachers) in the Land of Mazury started. The official secession from Church was the principal reason which made the author support the previous researchers of the phenomenon of the “Saints” who attributed the “Saints” to non-traditional religious groups. On the other hand, because of the pietist roots and the majority of their views, they can be considered to be direct predecessors of surinkimininkai.
Key Words: The “Group of Saints” (Heilige), Mazury, the movement of surinkimininkai (Gemeinschaftsbewegung), East Prussia.


Tarp konflikto ir suartėjimo: Donelaičio simbolio aktualizavimas XIX a. pabaigoje – XX a. pabaigoje Prūsijos Lietuvoje ir Klaipėdos krašte
EN title: Between Conflict and Convergence: Actualization of the Symbol of Donelaitis in the Late 19th to the Late 20th C. in Prussian Lithuania and Klaipėda Region

Abstract and Full Text
Kristijonas Donelaitis (1714–1780), poet of Prussian Lithuania of the epoch of Enlightenment, who was first turned into a symbol in the late 19th c., for more than a century has been one of the brightest memory sites in the region. The paper analyzes the contexts in which the symbol was actualized in Prussian Lithuania and Klaipeda Region in the late 19th to the late 20th c. The change in the interpretations of Donelaitis is presented: from the resource for the maintenance of Prussian Lithuanian regional patriotism, a symbolic figure of Lithuanian national culture, to the Sovietization of Donelaitis and his turning into a resource for the maintenance of the Lithuanian national uniqueness within the boundaries of the USSR. The analysis of the meaningful content in which the symbol of Donelaitis functioned and of its symbolic expressions proves that, over all the analyzed period, Donelaitis has been a figure that encouraged not only the convergence of cultures, but also a conflict.
Key Words: Donelaitis, cultural contacts, regional patriotism, Lithuanian nationalism, sites of memory.


Genius loci ir „išgyvenimo pamokos“. (Donelaičio fenomenas moderniojo katastrofizmo laikais)
EN title: Genius Loci and ‘Lessons of Survival’ (The Phenomenon of Donelaitis at the Time of Modern Catastrophism)

Abstract and Full Text
The article is devoted to the so-called “lessons of life” in “The Seasons” of Donelaitis, that simultaneously are also “lessons of survival”, both of spiritual-psychological and pure physical. In his epic piece, by relating God’s pedagogy of the Christian teaching to the pedagogy of the God of nature, Donelaitis got engaged in therapeutic education: that is an amazing synthesis of the Christocentric idea and pantheistic implications in which the ideal of the Christian hermetism clearly stands out. That is the ideal of a comprehensive unit which has links with the ontology of the epic poem. The ontology is based on the eternal recurrence with a constantly regenerating hope to finally have the genius of the totality able to operate ontological cosmic turning points.
Key Words: philosophy of locality, therapy of being, God’s pedagogy, an ideal of a comprehensive entity, an epic idea of human maximum in accordance with his responsibility for a locality.



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