Volume 25

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 25Klaipėdos krašto konfesinis paveldas: tarpdisciplininiai senųjų kapinių tyrimai
Confessional Heritage of Klaipėda Region: Interdisciplinary Research into the Old Cemeteries

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XXV

Editor Silva Pocytė

Klaipėda, 2012


INTRODUCTION
(author of Introduction Silva Pocytė)
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THE ARTICLES

Darius BARASA
„Niekas neturi būti palaidotas kaip gyvulys“. Laidotuvių teisinis reglamentavimas Prūsijoje XVI–XVIII a.
EN title: “No One Should be Buried Like an Animal”: Legal Reglamentation of Funerals in Prussia in the 16th to 18th C.

Abstract and Full Text
On the basis of an analysis of legal documents, the article reviews the reglamentation of funeral rites in Prussia in the 16th to the 18th c. with the aim of disclosing the content of the legal orders and the intensity of reglamentation in the field of funeral. On the other hand, the regulation implemented by the Church and the state is sought to be reviewed as one of the components and consequences of the process of confessionalization.
Key Words: Prussia, funeral, regulation, law, confessionalization.

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Silva POCYTĖ
Klaipėdos krašto istorijos daugiakalbiškumas ir konfesinio paveldo senosiose kapinėse specifika Lietuvos kontekste
EN title: Multilingualism of the History of Klaipėda Region and Specificity of the Confessional Heritage in the Old Cemeteries in the Context of Lithuania

Abstract and Full Text
The article reviews the historical causes of multilingualism in Klaipėda Region and the reflection of language combinations in the objects of confessional heritage, mainly in the epitaphs recorded in the Old Lutheran cemeteries of Klaipėda Region. The specificity of the confessional heritage in the context of Lithuania is disclosed by comparing some specific characteristics of the Old cemetery (the tradition of cross erection, the use of languages in epitaphs) to the Old cemetery artefacts in other Lithuanian regions.
Key Words: cemeteries of Klaipėda Region, tombstones, epitaphs, bilingualism.

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Asta BALČIŪNIENĖ
Klaipėdos krašto liuteroniškųjų kapinių paminkliniai įrašai lingvistiniu aspektu
EN title: Tombstone Inscriptions in Klaipėda Region Lutheran Cemeteries: a Linguistic Viewpoint

Abstract and Full Text
The article reviews tombstone inscriptions of Klaipėda Region cemeteries of the late 19th to mid-20th c. from a linguistic viewpoint. The inscriptions are German or Lithuanian, less frequently bilingual (in German and Lithuanian on the same tombstone). The greatest attention is paid to the Lithuanian inscriptions, with the focus on their vocabulary and morphology. Moreover, the principal linguistic characteristics of personal names are discussed.
Key Words: tombstone inscriptions, epitaphs, morphology, vocabulary, personal names.

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Eglė BUKANTYTĖ
Vokiškosios senųjų Klaipėdos krašto kapinių epitafijos: kalbinis aspektas
EN title: German Epitaphs in the Old Cemeteries of Klaipėda Region: A Linguistic Aspect

Abstract and Full Text
The object of the research is German epitaphs in the old cemeteries of Klaipėda Region. German inscriptions are compared to Lithuanian ones on the basis of the historical-comparative method with the aim of disclosing their textological and linguistic characteristics. The analysis of inscriptions on German tombstones showed that, compared to Lithuanian tombstones, the attributes indicating the relationship of the deceased to family members were used more frequently. The profession of the deceased was indicated more often than in Lithuanian epitaphs. Starting with the 20s of the 20th century, the constructions of extended appositions were less frequent, and the epitaphs became more concise. Laconicism of linguistic expression and of the structure of the epitaphs restrained their linguistic diversity and the potential for linguistic research. The analysis considered the brief language of the epitaphs as the facts of the living language, whereas Bible and canticle citations were not studied. A few examples of dialecticisms and archaisms were identified, e.g. an archaic form of the verb geben: es giebt. Vowel reduction, a phenomenon characteristic of the High German dialect, was identified. The present article did not discuss the principle of Germanization of Lithuanian names, surnames, or place names, as well as the distribution of German epitaphs over the localities of Klaipėda Region. New data are expected that may promote linguistic research.
Key Words: epitaphs, the interaction of German and Lithuanian languages, historical-comparative method, archaism, dialecticisms.

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Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Klaipėdos krašto evangelikų liuteronų kapinių epigrafų metrikos duomenų analizė
EN title: The Epigraphes of Klaipėda Region Evangelico-Lutheran Cemeteries: Analysis of Metrical Data

Abstract and Full Text
The epigraphs of the Evangelical Lutheran cemeteries of Klaipėda provide rich information. They present exhaustive data on the buried person: full dates of their births and deaths, names, surnames, and maiden names of married women; sometimes even the place of origin or the social-professional status is indicated. Beside the personal data, the epigraphs contain farewell or sacred texts addressed to the dead. The ethnic Evangelical Lutheran cemeteries in Klaipėda Region significantly suffered during the historical and political events unfavourable for them. The majority of tombstones and crosses were totally destroyed and cannot be reconstructed. Unique information about the population of the Region was lost forever. In the article, the author analyzes the data presented in epigraphs: the distribution of the dead by gender and age, high infant/ children mortality rates, and other.
Key Words: Klaipėda Region, Evangelical Lutheran cemeteries, epigraph, register, qualitative analysis.

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Arūnas BAUBLYS
Klaipėdos krašto senųjų kapinių būklė ir vieta lokalinės kultūros paveldo sistemoje
EN title: The State and the Place of Old Cemeteries in Klaipėda Region in the Context of the Local Cultural Heritage

Abstract and Full Text
The article focuses on the state of the old cemeteries in Klaipėda Region and their place in the system of the local culture heritage. All that shall be revealed by actualizing the issue as an outcome of World War 2, when the Region lost almost all local population who were substituted for by settlers with the culture and religion alien to the land. The historical-confessional characteristics of legal evolution of the old cemeteries of the region are discussed by disclosing the transfer of their legal-administrative subordination from church to municipal jurisdiction. General characteristics and problems of the relationship of the new settlers with the old heritage are discussed. The value of the cemeteries in terms of heritage protection is emphasized.
Key Words: Klaipėda region, cemetery, heritage.

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Rimantas SLIUŽINSKAS
Senųjų kapinių istorijos: vietinių gyventojų ir pokarinių persikėlėlių požiūriai į Klaipėdos krašto liuteronų konfesinio paveldo reliktus
EN title: Stories of Old Cemeteries: Attitudes of the Local Population and Post-War New-Comers to the Relics of the Lutheran Confessional Heritage in Klaipėda Region

Abstract and Full Text
The article presents research materials collected by means of surveys of the old Lietuvininkai (residents of Prussian Lithuania) and settlers of the post-war period who lived in the vicinity of the old Lutheran cemeteries; that affected the character of their lifestyle, traditional moral attitudes, and economic activity in one or another way. The major part of the information was collected during summer expeditions to the villages of Saugai rural administrative unit, Šilutė district, in the summer of 2012. Authentic stories and memories of the origin and development of specific cemeteries, burial customs and habits, and the issues of cemetery care or neglecting are published and discussed. The summaries provide the views of the surveyed respondents of the immediate and further prospects of the survival of the said cemeteries.
Key Words: confessional heritage, Klaipėda Region, Lutheran cemeteries, local population, post-war settlers, cemetery care, cemetery fate.

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Rita NEKROŠIENĖ
Dekoratyvieji augalai senosiose Klaipėdos krašto kapinėse
EN title: Decorative Plants in the Old Cemeteries of Klaipėda Region

Abstract and Full Text
The article deals with the diversity of herbaceous and ligneous ornamental plant species and their distribution in the old cemeteries of Klaipėda Region. Studies were carried out in 40 cemeteries of Šilutė district, during the vegetation period in 2012. The cemeteries differed in their area, the intensity of their use, and care. In the majority of cases, one to ten species of ornamental plants were found. The largest diversity of ornamental plant species (over 20) were found in the currently used and cared for cemeteries in Mantvydai I and Kukorai. The total number of ornamental plants species established in the cemeteries was under 60. Among the ligneous plants, the common lilacs (Syringa vulgaris L.) and thuja (Thuja occidentalis L.) prevailed. Among the herbaceous ornamental plants, several species and varieties of plantain lily (Hosta L.), common columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris L.), and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis L.) prevailed.
Key Words: decorative plants, cemetery, introduction, species.

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Arminas ŠTUOPYS, Dionyzas VARKALIS
Atsitiktiniai artefaktai iš nekropolių: medžiagotyrinių tyrimų galimybės ir moralinės dilemos
EN title: Accidental Artefacts from Necropoles: Materials Science Test Feasibility and Moral Dilemmas

Abstract and Full Text
The article focuses on ethical dilemmas caused by accidentally found artefacts from the necropolises of Klaipėda Region that no longer have clear attribute references (tombstones or details of their decoration, epitaph tables, fragments of crosses, etc). The problems are related to the identification of such findings, the establishment of their environmental protection and museum value (whether they are to be protected, exhibited, or valueless), their potential use (as objects of research or of technological interest, memorial objects, raw materials for restoration, etc.), and their fate. As proved by experience, part of the artefacts are a valuable source of information about the materials used by the craftsmen of the 19th to mid-20th c., details of decoration, the skills, and technological and colourist resolutions. The artefacts with no clear attribute references can be used for instrumental analysis: for the identification of the composition and structure of ceramics, metal, paints, and glaze; however, the fate of an artefact primarily depends on the moral decision of a person who found (appropriated, or dismantled) it.
Key Words: necropolis, Klaipėda, monument, moral dilemma, materials science tests.

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Natalija JUŠČENKO, Dalia BAZIUKĖ, Ingrida BORISENKO
Informacinės technologijos istoriniuose tyrimuose: istorinių kapinių atvejis
EN title: Information Technologies in History Research: The Case of Historical Cemeteries

Abstract and Full Text
Modern information technologies (IT) provide progressive tools and methods for data collection, storage, processing, and publication. The essence of historical research is to synthesize new information from different types of historical sources. The analysis of scientific publications proved that IT are still rarely applied to historical research. Several reasons may account for the state of things. One of them is related to rather conservative attitudes of researchers in the field of IT towards collaboration, which also accounts for the absence of specialized software for historical research. The article introduces IT tools and methods which can be used in historical research in a popular way, and the authors expect to promote interdisciplinarity in the field of history.
Key Words: necropolistics, geo-information system, data analysis.

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SOURCES PUBLICATIONS, THEIR RESEARCHES AND OVERVIEWS

Darius BARASA
Kuncų parapija 1569 m. bažnytinės vizitacijos duomenimis
EN title: Kuncai Parish: the Data of Church Visitation of 1569

Abstract and Full Text
The article discusses the data provided by visitation of 1569 of the parish of Kuncai in the Curonian Spit in the context of all the visited parishes in Semba diocese. An attempt is made to review the scale of the rooting of confessional norms in daily life, the quality of clergymen‘s education, the level of parishioner indoctrination, the material situation of the parish, etc. The visitation acts are examined through the prism of the aspect of confessionalization, and the characteristics of the process are identified: the priests’ personalities and performance are studied, as well as their control of the subordinates on the basis of the confession, the collaboration of the secular and church authorities, etc.
Key Words: church visitation, the Curonian Spit, Kuncai, confessionalization.

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Darius BARASA
XIX a. Rusnės kapinių kronika
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Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Aidai iš praeities, kuri neleidžia ją pamiršti. NKVD Šilutės operatyvinės grupės apklausos protokolas, 1944 m. lapkritis
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Arminas ŠTUOPYS
Senosios Klaipėdos apylinkių kapinaitės kraštotyrininko Ferdinando Tamošiūno albumuose
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Arminas ŠTUOPYS
Žardės kaimo kapinių būklė nuo XX a. vidurio iki dabarties
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Anatolijus BACHTINAS
Trumpa Kenigsbergo/ Karaliaučiaus kapinių istorijos apžvalga
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Jurgis MALIŠAUSKAS
Iš kelionės Sovetsk–Svetlogorsk (1983 m.) dienoraščio
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REVIEWS
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Arūnas BAUBLYS
Karas po karo arba išvytų iš Rytų Europos vokiečių nepagražintos integracijos istorija (A Review of: KOSSERT, Andreas. Kalte Heimat. Die Geschichte der deutschen Vertriebenen nach 1945. München: Paderborn Verlag, 2009)

Arūnė L. ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Jonas Grigolaitis: jo gyvenimas, jo knyga ir jo kova (A Review of: GRIGOLAITIS, Jonas. Nacių pragare: kalinio Nr. 40627 išgyvenimai nacių koncentracijos stovyklose 1941–1945. Vilnius: VšĮ „Vibroseka“, 2012)

SCIENTIFIC LIFE
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Dainius ELERTAS
Tarptautinė mokslinė konferencija Klaipėdos miesto herbas Baltijos regiono kontekste XIII–XX a.

Marius ŠČAVINSKAS
Apie kultūrines slinktis nuo Prūsijos iki Žemaitijos: mokslinė konferencija „Krikščioniškos raidos kontekstai: inkultūracinių ir akultūracinių procesų poveikiai vakarinės LDK dalies bei Prūsijos krikščioniškam gyvenimui“

Mindaugas BRAZAUSKAS
Gyvenimas virš vandens ankstyvuoju metalų laikotarpiu Lietuvoje. Įspūdžiai apie Elenos Pranckėnaitės disertacijos gynimą