Volume 24

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 24Erdvių pasisavinimas Rytų Prūsijoje XX amžiuje
Appropriation of Spaces in East Prussia during the 20th Century
Присвоение пространств в Восточной Пруссии в двадцатом столетии

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XXIV

Editor Vasilijus Safronovas

Klaipėda, 2012


Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS – Įvadas / Introduction / Введение
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I. READING THE SPACE. THE EXAMPLE OF EAST PRUSSIA

Robert TRABA
Kraštovaizdžio mitologizavimas kaip nacionalinės saviugdos veiksnys XX amžiaus pirmojoje pusėje. Rytų Prūsijos pavyzdys
EN title: Mythologization of Landscape as a Factor of National Self-Education in the First Half of the 20th Century. The Case of East Prussia

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyses the formation of mental links between the population of East Prussia and the natural and cultural landscape of the said German province after World War I. By interpreting landscape as an imaginary space whose symbols may impact identity, the author analyzes several ways of nationalization of the East Prussian landscape. They include: studies of the homeland newly defined by the Versailles Peace Treaty at school and in daily life; popularization of tours for youth of the pre-promoted places of the province; organized care of wartime military cemeteries moderately integrated into the landscape; the construction of the Tannenberg memorial complex and giving meanings to it; and reconstruction of war-devastated cities and towns of East Prussia. The article demonstrates that the creation of meaningful links between the German population, the homeland (East Prussia), the elements of its natural and cultural landscape, and the Fatherland (Germany) formed a unique perception of the region which was primarily related to its meaning of a German outpost in the East.
Key Words: East Prussia, regional identity, natural and cultural landscape, youth tours, outpost, World War I.

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II. FROM EAST PRUSSIA TO KALININGRAD OBLAST

Юрий КОСТЯШОВ / Yuri KOSTIASHOV
Восточная Пруссия в экономическом, общественном и культурном пространстве России во второй половине XIX – начале XX века
EN title: East Prussia in Russian Economic, Social and Cultural Space (Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th C.)

Abstract and Full Text
On the basis of statistical economic indicators, diplomatic correspondence, diaries of Russian travellers, memoirs, essays, and letters, the article seeks to answer the question of what place East Prussia occupied in the economic, political, and cultural space of Russia. When considering the dimensions making up the image of East Prussia that was maintained in the consciousness of Russian people, the author identifies six of them and demonstrates the changes of their content in different discourses supported within the Russian Empire from the mid-19th c. to World War I.
Key Words: the Russian Empire, East Prussia, economic relations, social and political relations, images of East Prussia.

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Виталий МАСЛОВ / Vitali MASLOV
Образ Восточной Пруссии и ее жителей в официальных советских документах в первые послевоенные годы
EN title: Image of East Prussia and Its Residents in the First Post-War Years Official Soviet Papers

Abstract and Full Text
The article intends to establish which images of East Prussia and its local population were maintained and what kind of relations with the “German heritage” was formed in the documents of the official military and civil authorities in Kaliningrad Oblast in the period of 1945 to 1950. The question of the impact of the cultural uniqueness of East Prussia made on the official propaganda-supported approach to East Prussia and the local population is raised. The author demonstrates that the said approach did not always coincide with the approach that was forming due to the daily social interaction between the newcomers and the old “German” residents with their cultural heritage.
Key Words: East Prussia, Kaliningrad Oblast, Soviet propaganda, East Prussian Germans, East Prussia images.

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Per BRODERSEN
Besiekiant normalumo. Kaliningrado sritis tarp tarybinio pokario pretenzijų ir tikrovės (1945–1970 metai)
EN title: In Search of Normality. The Kaliningrad Oblast between Aspirations and Reality of the Soviet Post-War Period (1945-1970)

Abstract and Full Text
The use of the “bright tomorrow” mythologeme in Soviet propaganda and the claims to turn Kaliningrad Oblast into a “normal”, standard region of Russia are discussed in the article as the principal strategies applied to Kaliningrad Region that aimed to form the identity of the local population and the growing intimacy with the new place of residence. The author seeks to demonstrate the fact that Kaliningrad images, as depicted by the Soviet propaganda, were evoking increasingly diminishing trust and failed to ensure the desired certainty about the future on the new territory primarily due to the confrontation with reality: a difficult post-war situation in the region and the problems caused by the remoteness from Russia, as well as the feeling that Russia did not take proper care of them.
Key Words: Kaliningrad, relations of Russia and Kaliningrad Oblast, the perception of ideology.

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Илья ДЕМЕНТЬЕВ / Ilya DEMENTYEV
«Рябинка у бойницы»: реабилитация довоенного прошлого в памяти калининградцев (1970-е – 1980-е годы)
EN title: “Rowan at a Gunslot”: Rehabilitation of the Pre-War Past in Kaliningradians’ Memory (1970s-1980s)

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes the competition between the official and alternative discourses of the region’s past that formed in Kaliningrad over the 70s to the 80s of the 20th c. The author notes that, next to the efforts of the government to form a respective image of the past of the pre-war Kaliningrad Oblast, different behaviour strategies formed which enabled the preparation of the ground for the rehabilitation of the prewar cultural heritage even under the conditions of ideological dictate. The process of the formation of a mechanism of continuous interest in the past of the region is examined, and formal and informal groups that undertook to meet the interest in the years of Perestroika are characterized.
Key Words: East Prussia, Kaliningrad, Soviet historical discourse, East Prussian cultural heritage, collective memory.

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Lina MOTUZIENĖ
Praeities aktualizavimas Kaliningrade po 1990 metų: būdingiausių tendencijų apibrėžtys
EN title: Actualisation of the Past in Kaliningrad after 1990: The Outlines of Prime Trends

Abstract and Full Text
The article reveals the principal trends of changes in the relationship with the past in the city of Kaliningrad at the turn of the 21st c. It examines how different social groups and institutions – amateur and professional historians, veterans of World War II, museums, and interest groups abroad – were solving the dilemma that emerged in Kaliningrad during the Perestroika period and were trying to choose what was native and what was foreign in the past of the city. The author argues that the active formation of the relationship with the past of the city, especially during the last decade, by those groups intertwines with the efforts to strengthen ties between Russia and its exclave and makes an impact on the Russianization of the city areas and East Prussian cultural heritage.
Key Words: Kaliningrad, East Prussian cultural heritage, collective memory, cultures of remembrance, Russian politics of history.

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Валерий ГАЛЬЦОВ / Valeri GALTSOV
Что значит «Восточная Пруссия» для калининградцев?
EN title: On the Meaning of East Prussia for Contemporary Kaliningradians

Abstract and Full Text
The article focuses on the role of the specificity related to East Prussia and its past in the current self-consciousness of the population of Kaliningrad Oblast and in the future strategies of the said territory of Russia. The author questions both the impact of the above mentioned specificity on the formation of uniqueness of Kaliningrad people in the context of other Russian territories and the existence of a special Kaliningradian identity. To his mind, for the population of Kaliningrad, East Prussia is a multidimensional symbol that provokes different social-cultural phenomena and simultaneously is used in order to trigger, maintain, and enhance the phenomena.
Key Words: East Prussia, Kaliningrad Oblast, images of East Prussia, cultural heritage of East Prussia, Kaliningradian identity.

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III. FROM EAST PRUSSIA TO WARMIA AND MASURIA

Andrzej SAKSON
Varmijos ir Mozūrijos prijungimas prie Lenkijos. Legitimavimo prielaidos ir praktikos
EN title: Incorporation of Warmia and Masuria into Poland. Assumptions and Practices of Its Legitimation

Abstract and Full Text
The article reveals the assumptions under which Polish claims to Warmia and Masuria Regions were legitimated in the 20th c. and the impact made on the starting points of the policies applied after WWII to the integration of Warmia and Masuria into Poland by the ideological political situation and the ratio of powers formed in the years of the war. The author pays great attention to the disclosure of the policy of “de-Germanization” and its practices by demonstrating the ways of instrumentalization of anti-German attitudes by the postwar Polish authorities, thus promoting the symbolical integration of former German territories (the Recovered Lands) into the minds of Polish settlers in them.
Key Words: East Prussia, Warmia and Masuria, cultural heritage of East Prussia, de-Germanization policy, symbolical appropriation.

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Мартин ВАКАР / Marcin WAKAR
Что значат Вармия и Мазурия для современных поляков?
EN title: What Do the Warmia and Masuria Mean to the Contemporary Poles?

Abstract and Full Text
By considering what Warmia and Masuria Regions mean to contemporary Poles, the author tries to find an answer by identifying two levels of acquaintanceship with the region: narrative constructions that acquired the forms of myths and scientific cognition. He analyzes the maintenance of two myths around which the images relating to the comprehension of the said regions concentrate: the myth of the Recovered Lands and the myth of Arcadia. Simultaneously, he discusses the meanings of Warmia and Masuria disclosed by scientific studies of the last two decades in contemporary Poland and the changing conceptions of the past of the region resulting in unique forms of identifying oneself with the past of Warmia and Masuria Regions.
Key Words: Warmia and Masuria, myth of the Recovered Lands, Arcadian myth, post-immigrant community, identity.

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Marta KARKOWSKA
Praeities atminimo tęstinumas bei pokyčiai ir vietinės bendruomenės prigijimo procesas. Olštyno pavyzdys
EN title: Changes and Continuity in Remembrance of the Past and Process of Local Community Rooting. The Case of Olsztyn

Abstract and Full Text
The article deals with the settling down process of the newcomers to post-war Olsztyn, i. e. their efforts to develop their own relationship with the environment of the place of residence they arrived in from other territories. The author believes that the “national” (Polish) version of reading of the past of the city that took root in the Soviet years and that neglected the regional specificities of Warmia and Masuria served as one of the major stimuli accounting for the settlers’ formation of meaningful relationships with Olsztyn. By comparing the meanings used in the formation of relationships in the periods before and after 1989, the author demonstrates that the said “national” version of reading the past of the city presently co-exists with the efforts to popularize regional history and the multiculturalism of the past of Warmia and Masuria.
Key Words: Olsztyn, Warmia, East Prussian cultural heritage, collective memory, symbolic appropriation.

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IV. FROM EAST PRUSSIA TO LITHUANIA MINOR

Nijolė STRAKAUSKAITĖ
Rytų Prūsijos reikšmės Prūsijos lietuvių aplinkoje XIX–XX amžių sandūroje
EN title: Meanings of East Prussia within the Milieu of Prussian Lithuanians at the Turn of the 20th C.

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes the issue of East Prussian meanings in the environment of Prussian Lithuanians in terms of their “mental maps” and “symbolical geography”. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the communication channels that affected the process of mental appropriation of “our own region” – East Prussia – by the ethnic group of Prussian Lithuanians. The significance of the historical tradition related to the reformationist provision of protection of the status of the Lithuanian language in churches and schools of Prussian Lithuania, as well as of the periodicals published in Lithuanian at the turn of the 20th c. in East Prussia, is emphasized, as it is considered to be a significant communication channel that formed the conception of East Prussia, a close and “one’s own” space from the geographical, administrative-political, and civilization viewpoints. The analysis is oriented towards the problem of “appropriation of the past”, and it contributes to the understanding how the meanings of East Prussia topical for Prussian Lithuanians formed and which symbols marked the presently imaginary spaces identified with East Prussia and Prussian Lithuania/ Lithuania Minor as its part.
Key Words: East Prussia, Prussian Lithuanians, mental maps, Lithuanian tradition, cultural heritage.

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Dangiras MAČIULIS
Pasisavinant Mažąją Lietuvą. Vienijančios kolektyvinės atminties konstravimas Lietuvoje tarpukariu
EN title: Appropriating Lithuania Minor. Construction of Consolidating Collective Memory in the Interwar Lithuania

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes the aspiration of the interwar political and cultural elite of Lithuania to turn Klaipėda Region acquired in 1923 into integral part of the state of Lithuania by construing collective memory that would unify Lithuania Minor and Major. The attention is focussed exclusively on the initiatives whose authors were the political and cultural elite of Lithuania that identified itself with the tradition of Lithuania Major.
Key Words: collective memory, Lithuanian nationalism, Lithuania Minor, Rambynas, Martynas Jankus.

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Василиюс САФРОНОВАС / Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
О постижении Восточно-Прусского города после 1945 года. Соотношение его восприятий во всесоюзной, национальной, локальной системах значений на примере Клайпеды
EN title: Comprehending the East Prussian City After 1945: Correlation between Its Perceptions in All-Union, National, Local Systems of Meanings. The Case of Klaipėda

Abstract and Full Text
Like many other towns in East Prussia, Klaipėda lost almost all its former population during World War II and was inhabited by newcomers after 1945. After an example of Klaipėda, the article analyzes the process of comprehension of a newly inhabited area and making it one’s own. Klaipėda became a former East Prussian city having returned to Lithuania and simultaneously incorporated into the Soviet Union. That caused the clash of interests, the development of which also changed the systems of meanings that provided a framework for the appropriation process. The city was gradually comprehended in the process of formation of unique interrelationships of the meanings of Soviet ideology, all-Union patriotism, Lithuanian national culture, and East Prussian cultural heritage. In the article, the author identifies the processes that affected different configurations of the said interrelationships in different post-war periods.
Key Words: Klaipėda, East Prussia, Soviet ideology, Lithuanian nationalism, Lithuania Minor, East Prussian cultural heritage, symbolic appropriation.

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V. CONTEXTS AND SUMMATIONS

Felix ACKERMANN
Miestas kaip palimpsestas. Istorijos skaitymo ir rašymo vyksmas Gardine
EN title: City as Palimpsest: the Process of History Reading and Writing in Grodno

Abstract and Full Text
Over the 20th c., the city of Grodno changed its political dependence more than once; at the end of World War II and in the postwar period, it experienced cardinal changes in the composition of its population. By interpreting the city as a palimpsest, the author examines the process of re-reading and rewriting of the meanings in the palimpsest that took place in Grodno in the 20th c. The author highlights the breaks and the continuity in the maintenance of the meanings and discusses the strategies applied to legitimate one’s presence in the city. The article discloses the meanings in the course of studies how the processes of cultural appropriation of Grodno changed the area of the city as a system of references consisting of the symbolism of a network of city streets, squares, individual buildings, religious sites, and other.
Key Words: Grodno, symbolic appropriation, politics of remembrance, memorial sites, historical narrative.

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Alvydas NIKŽENTAITIS
Erdvių pasisavinimas Rytų Prūsijoje XX amžiuje: ar jau atėjo laikas lyginamiesiems tyrimams?
EN title: Appropriation of Spaces in East Prussia During the 20th C. Has the Time for Comparative Research Already Come?

Abstract and Full Text
On the basis of the research papers in the present collection, the author focuses on the issue of how specific the symbolic appropriation of the former East Prussian territories (and primarily cities, such as Kaliningrad, Olsztyn, and Klaipėda) was as compared to the expression of the process in other Lithuanian cities, such as Vilnius, Kaunas, and Šiauliai. The article discusses the role of capital cities as standards for building the cultures of remembrance in regions, the role of national (or communist) symbols as instruments of symbolic appropriation, and the impact of the communication milieus that formed and maintained the cultures of remembrance in cities. The author identifies the similarities and differences in the processes of symbolic appropriation of Klaipėda, Kaliningrad, Olsztyn, and Vilnius.
Key Words: appropriation of space, cultures of remembrance, national myth, communication milieu, East Prussia, Vilnius.

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BOOK REVIEWS
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Ruth LEISEROWITZ
Ginčai apie istoriją Lenkijoje / Streitigkeiten um die Geschichte in Polen (A Review of: TRABA, Robert. Przeszłość w teraźniejszości: polskie spory o historie̜ na początku XXI wieku. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 2009)

Ruth LEISEROWITZ
Stereotipų tyrimai Vidurio Rytų Europos pasienio regionuose / Erforschung von Stereotypen in den Grenzgebieten Ostmitteleuropas (A Review of: Akulturacja/ asymilacja na pograniczach kulturowych Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w XIX i XX wieku. Tom 1: Stereotypy i pamięć. Red. naukowa R. TRABA. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo ISP PAN, 2009)

Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Gdansko atstatymas pokariu, arba naujas miestas senais apdarais (A Review of: FRIEDRICH, Jacek. Neue Stadt in altem Gewand: Der Wiederaufbau Danzigs 1945-1960 (Visuelle Geschichtskultur, Bd. 4). Köln, Weimar, Wien: Böhlau Verlag, 2010)

Hektoras VITKUS
Aktualus veikalas apie žydų bendruomenės istoriją Rytų Prūsijos ir Lietuvos paribio regione (A Review of: LEISEROWITZ, Ruth. Sabbatleuchter und Kriegerverein. Juden in der ostpreußisch-litauischen Grenzregion 1812-1942 (Einzelveröffentlichungen des Deutschen Historischen Institut Warschau, Bd. 24). Osnabrück: Fibre Verlag, 2010)

Arūnas BAUBLYS
Naujas žvilgsnis į seną problemą (A Review of: RIECHMANN, Jens Hinrich. Evangelische Kirche Altpreußens in den Abtretungsgebieten des Versailler Vertrags. Eine Untersuchung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Memellandes zwischen 1919 und 1938. Nordhausen: Verlag Traugott Bautz, 2011)

Ruth LEISEROWITZ
Kompiliacija apie Rytų Prūsiją / Eine Kompilation zu Ostpreußen (A Review of: PÖLKING, Hermann. Ostpreußen. Biographie einer Provinz. Berlin: Bebraverlag, 2011)

SCIENTIFIC LIFE

Diskusijos apie nacionalizmų ir vartotojiškos kultūros vaidmenį šiandieninėse Klaipėdos praeities sampratose stenograma
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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
In Memoriam Marian Biskup (1922–2012)
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Silva POCYTĖ
Paminėtas Klaipėdos universiteto Baltijos regiono istorijos ir archeologijos instituto dvidešimtmetis
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