Volume 23

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 23Daugiareikšmės tapatybės tarpuerdvėse: Rytų Prūsijos atvejis XIX–XX amžiais
Ambiguous Identities in the Interspaces: The Case of East Prussia in the 19th and 20th Centuries
Die vieldeutigen Identitäten in den Zwischenräumen: Der Fall Ostpreußen im 19./20. Jh.

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XXIII

Editors: Vasilijus Safronovas, Nijolė Strakauskaitė, Lina Motuzienė

Klaipėda, 2011


ĮVADAS / INTRODUCTION / EDITORIAL
(author of Introduction Vasilijus Safronovas)
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Robert TRABA
Interdisziplinäre Regionalforschung am Beispiel Ostpreußens /
Tarpdalykinis regiono tyrimas Rytų Prūsijos pavyzdžiu
EN title: Interdisciplinary Research into a Region: Case Study of East Prussia

Abstract and Full Text
The article actualizes the significance of interdisciplinary research into a region on the basis of a case study of East Prussia and seeks to bring out a problematic character of “professional regional history” in the context of the contemporary science of history. One of the major aims of the article is to emphasize theoretical reflections on interdisciplinary research into a region by featuring some research methods, viz. micro-history and applied history. The employment of the said methods that encourages multiple and precise studies of historical personalities and details typical of the collective consciousness of individuals in a local territory opens an opportunity to also grasp the relationships between cultural, social, economic, and political factors by revealing a clear view of the historical context.
Key Words: interdisciplinary research into a region, East Prussia, micro-history, applied history, reading of a cultural landscape, collective memory.

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I. MEANINGS AND EXPRESSIONS. THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HISTORICAL MASTER NARRATIVES AND CULTURES OF REMEMBRANCE

Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Borusianistinio didžiojo istorinio pasakojimo aktualizavimas Rytų Prūsijos provincijoje XIX–XX amžių sandūroje: atvejo analizė provincijos kontekste
EN title: Actualization of the Borussianistic Historical Master Narrative in the East Prussian Province at the Turn of the 20th C.: Case Study in a Province Context

Abstract and Full Text
The paper analyses the context of the formation and the narrative structure of the borussianistic historical master narrative based on the myth of Prussia’s German mission. By examining the relationship between the master narrative and the culture of remembrance, the article shows how, during the period of 1871-1914, the meanings of the borussianistic historical master narrative were consolidated into public commemoration practices of East Prussia and how that consolidation changed the multiplicity of identity intrinsic to East Prussia in the first half of the 19th century. On the basis of a case study analysis (the erection of a national monument “Borussia” in Klaipeda/ Memel), the article investigates the forms of application of borussianistic historical master narrative meanings on the territory of East Prussia, inhabited by mixed Lithuanian and German population.
Key Words: historical master narrative, historical plot, culture of remembrance, borussianism, East Prussia.

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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Bandymas formuoti alternatyvą: lietuviškojo didžiojo istorinio pasakojimo aktualizavimas Prūsijos Lietuvoje XIX–XX amžių sandūroje
EN title: An Attempt to form an Alternative: Actualization of the Lithuanian Historical Master Narrative in Prussian Lithuania at the Turn of the 20th C.

Abstract and Full Text
The paper analyses particular meanings which integrated the Germans and Lithuanians living in Prussian Lithuania, defined their regional patriotism, and constituted the fundamentals of the regional culture of remembrance in the 19th and the early 20th c. It also examines the circumstances which, at the turn of the 20th c., gave an opportunity for part of Prussian Lithuanians to create alternative meanings, based on the Lithuanian historical master narrative, and encouraged Prussian Lithuanians to maintain their ethnic peculiarity and to support their distinction from Germans. Since Lithuanian historical narrative, created in Prussian Lithuania, became a source of alternative meanings, its structure, as well as the sources of its formation, is exhaustively analysed in the article. The author tries to resolve the issue whether the alternative culture of remembrance, based on the structure of meanings which were consolidated in the Lithuanian historical narrative and characterized by its own ceremonies, rituals, and monument erection practices, had formed in Prussia Lithuania.
Key Words: historical master narrative, historical plot, culture of remembrance, Lithuanian nationalism, Prussian Lithuania.

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II. CHANGES OF SELF-PERCEPTION. SHIFT OF IDENTITIES AND IDENTIFICATIONS IN THE REGION IN THE 19TH AND 20TH C.

Magdalena NIEDZIELSKA
Rytų Prūsijos politinio elito tapatybė XIX amžiaus pirmojoje pusėje
EN title: The Identity of East Prussian Political Elites in the First Half of the 19th Century

Abstract and Full Text
The article discusses the main factors which shaped the peculiarities and distinctions of political elites in East Prussia in the first half of the 19th c. Among them, it names the growth of self-sufficiency of provincial nobility during the period of the Napoleonic Wars, the role of political elites in the liberal movement for constitutional reforms in Prussia, as well as the use of historical research and symbols of the past, increased in the first half of the 19th c. for the definition of distinction of both the province and its representatives. In the article, particular attention is paid to the examination of the factors of Russian neighbourhood and East Prussia’s position in the borderland between Prussia and Russia, showing their impact during crucial to Prussia events of 1813 and 1848. Due to the intertwining of all of those factors, in the first half of the 19th c., the consciousness of political elites in East Prussia ranged between regional provincial patriotism, Prussian patriotism (perceived through the relationship between the King and his subjects), and the growing sense of belonging to the German nation.
Key Words: identity, regional consciousness, Prussian patriotism, German nationalism, Russia.

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Christian PLETZING
Die Konstruktion deutscher Identität in Preußisch-Litauen 1848–1871
EN title: The Construction of the German Identity in East Prussia (1848-1871)

Abstract and Full Text
Between 1848 and 1871, German identity gained importance in East Prussia. The basis for the nationalization was the increased opportunities for communication in smaller cities and even villages in Prussian Lithuania provided by the newly founded associations. Additionally, the press developed into the most important medium allowing the adoption of national sentiments on a level wider than the local areas. A national movement encompassing all political camps did not appear on the German side. Only liberals and democrats supported the German national state. The conservatives remained distanced to the German nation state as they primarily identified themselves with Prussian patriotism.
Key Words: national identity, national movement, patriotism, communication, Prussian Lithuania.

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Ruth LEISEROWITZ
Jüdischer Identitätswandel in Ostpreußen. Paradigmen
EN title: Transformation of the Jewish Identity in East Prussia: Paradigms

Abstract and Full Text
Jewish immigration, which increased in East Prussia particularly after the Crimean War (1853-1856) because of an immigration policy that had been liberal for decades, brought especially young Litvak families to the region. They came with the decided endeavour to leave a part of their Litvak traditions behind and to establish themselves in Prussia. Which Jewish identity did they pass on to their children, who grew up as citizens of the Reich? And how did the identity of the grandchildren’s’ generation unfold? That very prominent change of identity is shown on the basis of one family that proves to be exemplary for Jews who immigrated in the second half of the 19th century. Several generations can be defined. The generation of the immigrants had children who explicitly felt German. The life of the grandchildren was connected to the decision for forced migration and thus with commitment to a new chosen homeland (in most cases, Palestine), in which the mental relationships to their home region were shaped in a very ambivalent way.
Key Words: Jews identity, Jews imigration, Litvak tradition, East Prussia, Holocaust.

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Nijolė STRAKAUSKAITĖ
Etnofilologiniai Prūsijos lietuvių identifikavimo kontekstai (XIX a. antroji pusė – XX a. pradžia)
EN title: The Prussian Lithuanians in the Ethnophilological Identification Contexts (Late 19th – Early 20th C.)

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyses the transformations of the European science of philology in relation to the strengthening of nationalism, as well as the reflection of the trend in the context of East Prussia and Prussian Lithuania. The developments in comparative philology presupposed researchers’ interest in the studies of Baltic languages, Lithuanian in particular. The establishment of the Department of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at Königsberg University both formed the tradition of academic Baltic studies and united the efforts of the intellectuals of East Prussia for the preservation of linguistic and ethnic-cultural heritage of Prussian Lithuania. The text Aus Baltischen Ländern by lawyer and cultural worker Ludwig Passarge is a characteristic example featuring the reflection of the ethnic-cultural model of Prussian Lithuanians against the background of predomination of comparative linguistics typical of the intellectual context of Europe in the 19th c.
Key Words: Prussian Lithuania, comparative linguistics, Sanskrit, ethnic archaeology, nationalism.

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Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Tapatumo sūpuoklėse tarp pilietybės ir tautybės: Klaipėdos krašto gyventojai XX a.
EN title: In the Swings of Identity between Citizenship and Nationality: Population of Klaipėda Region in the 20th C.

Abstract and Full Text
The paper aims to analyse various aspects of interdependence between the nationality and the citizenship of the residents of Klaipėda region by restricting the analysis to the political and economic factors of the 20th c. The analysis was carried out on the basis of little known archival materials. The article seeks to prove that nationality and citizenship, as the principal forms of the identity expression, have not always been a matter of free self-determination; they would frequently change depending on the external political and ideological pressure.
Key Words: Klaipėda region, citizenship, nationality, optation, foreigners.

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Ralf MEINDL
Vorposten und Grenzland. Ostpreussische Identitäten 1933-1945
EN title: Bulwarks and Borderland. East Prussian Identities (1933-1945)

Abstract and Full Text
During the first half of the 20th century, East Prussia was described as the bulwark of Germandom against the permanent danger of a Slavic attack. The regulations of the Versailles Treaty and the founding of the Republic of Poland partly on former German soil seemed to verify this view. These fears had great influences of the identity of the East Prussians. The political culture and the public opinion were dominated by an aggressive, nationalist and anti-Polish propaganda. Many East Prussians feared a Polish attack and prepared to fight against it in volunteer battalions. The defending of East Prussia was to overrule all other conflicts, they believed. Even harsh political struggles, which where fought all over the German Reich, had to step back behind the need for a united East Prussia. In order to boost the poor province it was given economic aid and thus its role as bulwark was highlighted. On the other hand, this fighter-mentality was seen as a blueprint for the whole Reich. In 1945, this image of East Prussia was fatal. Many people believed in the government’s propaganda that they were fighters and that it would be possible to defend the province. As a result they stayed in their homes for too long and became victims of the Red Army.
Key Words: Bulwark of Germandom, Culture and Civilisation, Borderland Situation, Base of National-Socialism, Pioneers of Nation.

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III. DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS. SITES OF MEMORY

Rafał ŻYTYNIEC
Das Land der Elche und Dünen. Kurische Nehrung als ostpreussische Landschaftsikone am Beispiel ausgewählter Texte aus den „Ostdeutschen Monatsheften“ (1920–1939)
EN title: The Land of Elks and Dunes. The Curonian Spit as an Icon of the East Prussian Landscape after the Texts from ‘Ostdeutschen Monatshefte’ (1920-1939)

Abstract and Full Text
The fact that the Curonian Spit is one of the most important landscape icons of East Prussia is substantiated by reports from the travels and literary works of numerous German authors. This paper analyses articles on the Curonian Spit that were published between 1920 and 1939 in the “Ostdeutsche Monatshefte” journal that was one of the most important cultural magazines focused on the issues of the “German East”. It served as the basis for a description of elements that created the “ambience” (Georg Simmel) of this East Prussian landscape icon (dunes, the sea, the bay, the world of birds, and the ubiquitous moose), and its perception as a specifically German landscape, particularly in the inter-war period.
Key Words: Curonian Spit, East Prussia, landscape, “German East”, icons.

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Hektoras VITKUS
Mažoji Lietuva kaip lietuvių atminties vieta: teorinis modelis
EN title: Lithuania Minor as a Lithuanian Memory Site: a Theoretical Model

Abstract and Full Text
The aim of the article is to present theoretical interpretation of the concept of Lithuania Minor as a Lithuanian memory site in the contemporary Lithuanian historical narative. The principal attention in the article is focussed on theoretical aspects that allow understanding the prerequisites of ideological receptions of the region of Lithuania Minor in the discourse of Lithuanian memory culture. From the empirical viewpoint, the content of stereotypes, images, and plots that realise the concept of Lithuania Minor as a Lithuanian memory site is analysed.
Key Words: Lithuania Minor, culture of memory, memory site, historical narrative, politics of history.

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Анна КАРПЕНКО / Anna KARPENKO
«Место памяти» в системе политических координат: случай Калининградской области
EN title: The Site of Memory in the System of Political Co-Ordinates: Case Study of Kaliningrad Oblast

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes the mechanisms of institutionalization of the collective memory of regional identity, as its significant dimension, and assesses discursive strategies used by different politicians. The author discloses the principal elements of the regional identity in the Soviet period and analyzes the practices of collective memory and historical consciousness in the period of 1945 to 1990. The relationship of the history policies of the Soviet period and the contemporary political processes is demonstrated.
Key Words: regional identity, collective memory, regionalization, East Prussia, Kaliningrad Region, Königsberg.

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SOURCE PUBLICATIONS

Ruth LEISEROWITZ
Apraßimas Ißwalnijimo Kowos nů 1812 ikki 1815
Source: Apraßimas Ißwalnijimo Kowos nů 1812 ikki 1815: Ant Atsiminnimo Karžygiems ir Tēwißkes Prieteliems (XIX a. pirmoji pusė)
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Vygantas VAREIKIS, Arūnė ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Nauji duomenys apie padėtį Klaipėdos krašte 1925 metais: Jono Budrio dienoraštis
Source: Klaipėdos Teritorijos Gubernatoriaus Dienynas (1925 m.)
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BOOK REVIEWS
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Ruth LEISEROWITZ
Prūsijos Lietuvos kultūros kraštovaizdis. Etninės-regioninės-tautinės tapatybės matrica (A Review of: STRAKAUSKAITĖ, Nijolė. Kultūros kraštovaizdis prie Kuršių marių. Klaipėda: Klaipėdos universiteto leidykla, 2010)

Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Peržiūrint suvokinius: vokiečių priverstinio iškeldinimo iš Rytų Europos pavyzdys (A Review of: HAHN, Eva; HAHN, Hans Henning. Die Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern: Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte. Paderborn, München, Wien, Zürich: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2010)

Hektoras VITKUS
Nuo antilenkiškos paradigmos vartotojiškumo link (A Review of: STALIŪNAS, Darius. Savas ar svetimas paveldas?: 1863–1864 m. sukilimas kaip lietuvių atminties vieta. Vilnius: Mintis, 2008)

SCIENTIFIC LIFE
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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Tarptautinis seminaras „Erdvių pasisavinimas Rytų Prūsijoje“

Lina MOTUZIENĖ
Tarptautinis mokslinis seminaras „Adalbertas Bezzenbergeris – etnografas ir akademinės baltistikos pradininkas“

Vygantas VAREIKIS
Sėkmingas metų užbaigimas: Artūro Svarausko disertacija apginta Klaipėdos universitete

Darius BARASA
Kristijono Donelaičio 300-osioms metinėms artėjant. Tarptautinė konferencija „Kristijono Donelaičio epochos kultūrinės inovacijos“ Klaipėdoje

Marius ŠČAVINSKAS
Mėginant suvokti ir susivokti. Respublikinė mokslinė konferencija „Žmogaus dvasinis pasaulis pasaulėžiūrinių sistemų sankirtose – viduramžiai bei ankstyvieji naujieji amžiai (sinkretizmas, inkultūracija, akultūracija, difuzija)“