Volume 20

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 20Identity Politics: Migration, Communities and Multilingualism

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XX
Studia Anthropologica, IV

Edited by Vytis Čiubrinskas, Rimantas Sliužinskas

Klaipėda, 2010


FOREWORD
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MIGRATION

Jolanta KUZNECOVIENĖ
Outside of Imagined Community: Strategies of Incorporation of Lithuanian Immigrants

Abstract and Full Text
The article deals with the incorporation of Lithuanian immigrants into host societies and aims at identifying dominant strategies by which they are incorporated in England, Ireland, Norway and Spain. The main strategies of incorporation are identifying through the intensity of the immigrants’ social, economic, cultural and political linkages with the new society. Another focus is on the patterns of immigrants’ belonging. Based on the prevalence of linkage, four dominant strategies of Lithuanian immigrants’ incorporation into a new society are distinguished: conformist, representative, segregative, and navigational. Field data was obtained through semi-structured and focus group interviews with Lithuanian immigrants in 2007-2008.
Key Words: immigration, integration, incorporation, identity, acculturation.

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Neringa LIUBINIENĖ
Being a Transmigrant in Contemporary World: Lithuanian Migrants’ Quests for Identity

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The aim of the article is to explore how the migrant identity (especially, of the first generation) is changing under the influence of migration. Accordingly in the first part of the article the transnationalism and the concept of transmigration in relation to migratory experience are discussed, the second part is focused on the questions of identity and its boundaries, and the third part is based on the interpretation of empirical data from anthropological fieldwork by paying attention to the background, language and festivals of the immigrants as particular markers of the identity construction of the Lithuanian migrants in Northern Ireland.
Key Words: boundaries, identity, migration, transmigrant, transnationalism, Lithuanian migrants, Northern Ireland.

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COMMUNITIES

Hana HORÁKOVÁ
Transformation of Rural Communities: Mobility, Tourism and Identity

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Recent major changes in rural development in Europe have brought about new demands made on rural space. As a result of the transformation of rural needs, a type of modern rurality typical of the shift from production to consumption has emerged. The most illustrative example of this shift in rural environment is the emergence of international tourism and second homes. This text focuses the attention on how contemporary forms of mobility and international tourism affect local identities. Emphasis is put on the ways new and old cultural identities are contested, negotiated and constructed. The aim is to analyse one of the contemporary forms of ‘voluntary’, temporary mobility – the phenomenon of second homes owned by the Dutch in Czech rural countryside. The focus is placed on factors that either facilitate or hinder interaction between the second home owners and other international tourists, and local residents in two Czech rural communities.
Key Words: modern rurality, second homes, temporary mobility, anthropology of tourism, ‘hosts’ and ‘guests’.

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Kristina ŠLIAVAITĖ
Social Memory, Identity and Narratives of Decline in a Lithuanian Nuclear Plant Community

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This article analyses how the inhabitants of Visaginas construct their past and present. The first part of the article presents the ways the informants talked of the period 1970s-1980s, i.e. when they came to Lithuania, to the construction site of Visaginas (Sniechkus) and the nuclear power plant. The second part of the article discusses how the informants described their and the community’s social, economic situation in the post-Soviet period. The author discusses why the informants tend to construct the Soviet and post-Soviet periods in particular ways and provides parallels with other anthropological works. The article is based on data collected during ethnographic fieldwork conducted by the author in Visaginas in 2000-2004.
Key Words: socio-cultural anthropology, memory, decline, uncertainty, identity, ethnic groups, Ignalina nuclear power plant.

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Sada PETRUŽIENĖ
Klaipėda Jewish Community: Survival, Continuity and Change

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The attitude of Klaipėda Jewish community towards survival, alternation and continuity of community is being analyzed in the present article. Klaipėda Jewish community is regenerated in independent Lithuania, and it unifies few members. As a rule, they are Russian speaking elderly people, having little knowledge in its nation history and customs. It was expected, that Klaipėda Jewish community will naturally vanish, and young people will emigrate. In a fact we see at present, that this community is still lively, active and integrated one. A short excursion to the history of Klaipėda Jewish community, regarding the issues of its survival, alternation and continuity is presented hereby, and attention towards Klaipėda, as cross-border region, is pointed out.
Key Words: Jewish community, survival, changes, continuity, Klaipėda.

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Linas SVOLKINAS
‘On the Precipice of a Volcano’: Negotiating Continuity and Change in the Danish Alternative Community Christiania

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Christiania is the name of a Danish alternative community. In this article I investigate how Christianites, members of Christiania, deal with internal tensions and conflicts. My empirical data suggests that Christianites have developed social mechanisms and practices, in which conflicts accumulate without being resolved. I suggest that these practices are related to the dominant position of community old-timers. In my discussion I employ situational analysis as means to presenting one crisis situation in Christiania. The crisis situation occurred during my fieldwork in Christiania in 2005 and 2006. The first part of my article is about the general features of social life in Christiania. In the second part, one ethnographic example will show how old-timers operate in a specific crisis situation. I use Max Weber’s ideas on traditional authority to explain the dominant position of community old-timers.
Key Words: social conflict, situational analysis, traditional authority, alternative community, old-timers.

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MULTILINGUALISM

Tatjana RUSSITA
Bilingual Lessons in Schools of Latvian Republic de facto and de jure

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Some of the Russian-speaking teachers in minority schools in Latvia have to teach bilingually. That is, they are required to use both Latvian and Russian within the scope of one lesson. However, due to insufficient knowledge of Latvian they often cannot do that properly. In this study I describe the strategies they use to solve this problem. Problem-oriented interviews with teachers, participant observation and personal experience were used to collect information. I have discovered five strategies for the teaching. Each strategy involves different ratio of Russian and Latvian within a lesson. Three of them also imply a significant amount of cheating and pretence. Four strategies used for document handling in Latvian were discovered as well.
Key Words: behavioural strategies, bilingual education, cheating, Latvia, teachers, case-study.

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Laima KALĖDIENĖ
National Identity and Multilingualism in Lithuanian Cities

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The aim of this paper is to analyse the growing concern over the treatment of multilingualism in the main cities of Lithuania (Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda) with the focus on the population’s national identity and self-consciousness identifying the prospects of preserving the language-related national identity. The main problem seems to be deciding on which language of instruction would be most beneficial to balanced communication. This is a task requiring thoughtful planning and is surrounded by debate. Somebody prefer instruction only in the official language, but some aim to foster linguistic and thus social diversity by encouraging teaching in several languages, emphatically amplifying the English.
Key Words: national identity, language of instruction, ecology of language, language policy, multilingualism, sociolinguistic inquiry.

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IDENTITIES IN REGIONAL SETTINGS

Alina ŽVINKLIENĖ
Politics of Institutionalized Domination: Honor in Everyday Practice

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The article discusses honor issues in everyday practice with specific reference to Sicily. In the frame of analysis, honor refers to the politics of institutionalization of domination. The presented case studies on honor issues deal with the legitimization of superiority during the social interaction between two males, defined as the machismo game. The demolition of the established symbolical or actual hierarchy is the main goal and reason to provoke and/or enter the machismo game. Although a female is usually not a central factor in the male’s strategy for power, she may be a substantial contributing factor, even crucial to the outcome of the male’s game. Cultural context displays only the language and in what way the recognition of dominance is achieved in the social game does not alter its essence.
Key Words: honor, honor and shame culture, machismo, masculinity, femininity.

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Nijolė STRAKAUSKAITĖ
Historical Character in Region’s Identity Transformations: Prussian Lithuania – Lithuania Minor – Western Lithuania

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The concept of contemporary identity guides to exclusiveness of culture’s role and history as well. Queen Luisa is not only an attractive symbol while talking about fatal period for Europe and Prussia in the years 1806–1815, but also interesting is her personality while looking for parallels between identities of Memel (Klaipėda), the small province town of the German empire, and Klaipėda, the largest contemporary Western Lithuanian city. Present inhabitants of Klaipėda pay a lot of attention to Queen Luisa’s merits for development of education and culture in the city and in the region. The fact that in newest discussions about Klaipėda’s vision of cultural politics, the need to integrate cultural heritage into consciousness of citizens and formation of identity is highlighted, testifies about signs of new quality in region’s identity structure of Western Lithuania. Research is based on historical sources and literature.
Key Words: identity, Queen Luisa, cultural heritage, Prussian Lithuania / Lithuania Minor, Western Lithuania, Klaipėda.

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Vida SAVONIAKAITĖ
National Identity by Comparison: Focus on Klaipėda Region

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Contemporary humanities and social sciences often use to focus on mutual relationship between an individual and community for the search for “oneself” and attempts to understand “the other”, as well as on comparison of identities encountering each other. New research in the fields of ethnology claims that we should look for definitions of the contemporary national identities in Europe in their correlation with ethnicity. On the other hand, many interdisciplinary studies proved that it is increasingly more complicated to define ethnicity in the context of globalization. The goal of the paper is to analyze the local Klaipėda Region communities’ attitudes towards nationality in comparative perspective. It will focus on encounters in between dominant/state and local/regional discourses and identity politics.
Key Words: community, nation, national identity, motherland, Klaipėda Region, Lietuvininkai, Šišioniškiai.

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Jonas MARDOSA
The Verba and Ethno-Confessional Identity in Eastern Lithuania and Western Belarus

Abstract and Full Text
This article discusses the verba (palm; Palm Sunday flowers), one of the most important religious symbols throughout the second part of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century in eastern Lithuania and western Belarus. The tasks of this study are: to analyze the form and content of verba so as to reveal the relationships between regional, ethnic and confessional particularities, and to look at how the symbol becomes an important factor in the formation of the inhabitants’ ethnic and religious identity. The main source for this study is material gathered during field expeditions in eastern Lithuania and western Belarus at the beginning of the 21st century.
Key Words: verba, folk piety; willow twigs; juniper twigs, decorated verba (palm), religious identity, ethnic identity.

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REVIEWS
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Ida Harboe KNUDSEN
A Review of: Changing Economies and Changing Identities in Postsocialist Eastern Europe (Halle Studies in the Anthropology of Eurasia, Vol. 20). Ed. by I. SCHRÖDER, A. VONDERAU. Münster: LIT Verlag, 2008

Rimantas SLIUŽINSKAS
A Review of: Lietuvos etnologija: socialinės antropologijos ir etnologijos studijos, 2007, t. 7; 2008, t. 8

Ingo SCHRÖDER
A Review of: DE MUNCK, Victor; DE MUNCK, Trini; ANTANAVIČIŪTĖ, Rasa; SVOLKINAS, Linas. Experiencing Vilnius: Insider and Outsider Perspectives. Vilnius: Kronta, 2009

HISTORICAL SOURCE PUBLICATIONS

Vygantas VAREIKIS
Archeologas ir karininkas Petras Tarasenka Klaipėdoje
Source:
7-ojo Žemaičių kunigaikščio Butegeidžio pėstininkų pulko dienynas. Aprašymas II bataliono žygio į Klaipėdą (majoro Tarasenkos) (1930 m., Kaunas)
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SCIENTIFIC LIFE NEWS
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Rimantas SLIUŽINSKAS
Identiteto apraiškų tyrimai. II-ji tarptautinė KU ir VDU konferencija „Identiteto politika antropologiniu požiūriu: regionai, paribio sritys, diasporos“ Klaipėdos universitete

Vytautas JOKUBAUSKAS, Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS, Marius ŠČAVINSKAS, Silva POCYTĖ
Antrasis Lietuvos istorikų suvažiavimas Klaipėdoje

Žilvinas ČĖSNA
Fleita – ginklas ar žaislas? Klaipėdos universitete apginta Povilo Blaževičiaus daktaro disertacija „Žaislai ir žaidimai Lietuvoje XIII–XVII amžiais remiantis archeologijos duomenimis“