Volume 18

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 18Antrojo pasaulinio karo pabaiga Rytų Prūsijoje: faktai ir istorinės įžvalgos
End of the Second World War in East Prussia: Facts and Historical Perception

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XVIII

Editor Arūnė Liucija Arbušauskaitė

Klaipėda, 2009


FOREWORD (in Lithuanian only)
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ISSUES OF THEORY AND METHODOLOGY

Vygantas VAREIKIS
Kontroversiniai Antrojo pasaulinio karo vertinimai
EN title: Controversial Issues of the Second World War

Abstract and Full Text
The article focuses on the controversies of WWII, how the intertwining of history and politics impacts evaluation of the events of the war, the emphasis that is placed on historical memory and the possibilities of “forgetfulness”, and politicization of the holocaust memory. On the basis of diaries and contemporary notes, the situation in German-occupied Lithuania, episodes of the holocaust, the activities of the Lithuanian police battalions, and the actions of the Soviet Army in occupied German territory is analyzed.
Key Words: Second World War, historical controversies, holocaust, politics of memory, history politics, Z. Blynas, A. Torry, P. Plevokas, I. Erenburg, V. Grossman, Z. Ignonis.

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Hektoras VITKUS
Antrojo pasaulinio karo pabaigos Rytų Prūsijoje recepcija Rusijos istorinėje politikoje
EN title: The Reception of the End of the Second World War in East Prussia in the Historical Politics of Russia

Abstract and Full Text
In this article there is the analysis of specifics of the interpretation of the events of the end of the Second World War in the Russian historical politics from the point of view of the subject integration (historical, cultural-anthropological and psychological). The main concepts, defining the evaluation of the situation of the Soviet occupation of the region of Koenigsberg in Russian historical politics and culture, are presented. Also there is the analysis of the problem of the impact of the conception of the “genocide of the Lithuania Minor” on the Lithuanian historical politics. The problems, presented in the article, haven’t been analyzed in complex in Lithuania so far.
Key Words: historical politics, historical consciousness, historical memory, national identity, reception, reflection, Second World War, East Prussia, Koenigsberg region, Soviet Union, post-Soviet Russia, post-communist Lithuania.

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Юрий КОСТЯШОВ / Yury KOSTYASHOV
Сталин и Калининградская область: попытка исторической реконструкции
EN title: Stalin and Kaliningrad Region: the Case of Historical Reconstruction

Abstract and Full Text
The author attempts to reconstruct how Joseph Stalin viewed the future of the German province of East Prussian and its development within the USSR. The problems Moscow had formulating policy with respect to the newly annexed region are considered from the point of view of the conflicts between military and civil authorities. Newly discovered documents from central and local archives describe the history of the so-called Stalin Plan that outlined the development of the Kaliningrad region (1947). The results of the realization of “the Stalin Plan” are analyzed, the consequences to relations between Moscow and the Kaliningrad area are evaluated, and also their influence on the formation of Kaliningrad government structures is estimated.
Key Words: Josef Stalin, views, East Prussia, Kaliningrad area, Stalin Plan, 1945–1948.

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Валерий ГАЛЬЦОВ, Виктор СЕРГЕЕВ / Valery GALTSOV, Viktor SERGEEV
Проблема трансформации Восточной Пруссии в Калининградскую область в документальных публикациях и научных исследованиях
EN title: Transformation from the East Prussia to Kaliningrad Region in Sources Publications and Scientific Research

Abstract and Full Text
The history of the founding of the Kaliningrad region, as part of the USSR, is one of the most vital issues for Kaliningrad historians. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, this problem is actively investigated. The article presents the background and history of these investigations, draws the characterization of them, defines the main historical documents published on this issue, point out the progress of the regional researchers and gives general characteristics of contemporary Kaliningrad historiography.
Key Words: Kaliningrad region, sources, studies, migration, deportation, military authorities, reconstruction, economy, schooling, religious life, history of cities and settlements.

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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Antrojo pasaulinio karo įvykiai Rytų Prūsijoje Klaipėdos krašto ir Kaliningrado srities atminimo kultūroje
EN title: Second World War in East Prussia in the Culture of Commemoration of Klaipėda Region and Kaliningrad Oblast

Abstract and Full Text
This article analyses commemorations of World War II events in the northern part of former East Prussia, comparing discourses and practices of commemoration in post-war Klaipėda region and Kaliningrad oblast. It reviews the socio-cultural developments in this region and distinguishes between private and public forms of commemoration. Author argues that two main plots were important in the public commemoration of war: the plot of “liberation” and that of the victory achieved in the “struggle against Fascism”. Analyzing the public commemoration of these plots, it distinguishes and exhaustively examines its three functions: legitimation of territorial subordination, founding myth, and payment of homage to the warriors as strategies of regime legitimation and the formation of valuable orientations.
Key Words: World War II, culture of commemoration, functions of commemoration, founding myth, Soviet Union, East Prussia, Klaipėda region, Kaliningrad oblast, Klaipėda, Kaliningrad.

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FINAL STAGES OF THE WAR AND EVACUATION OF RESIDENTS

Joachim TAUBER
Ostpreussen 1945: Die deutsche Perspektive
EN title: East Prussia 1945: from the German Perspective

Abstract and Full Text
The paper gives an overview of military developments on the final stage of Second World War in the East Prussia territory. The events in this area had been sticked in collective German memory as an Apocalypse. The extensive crimes committed by the conqueror, the motives for the mass criminality in East Prussia are examined as well. These events left a collective trauma in the culture of German remembrance, but the consequences for the Soviet Union were also negative.
Key Words: East Prussia, collective memory. Soviet crimes, 1945.

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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Klaipėdos užėmimo istorijos 1944–1945 metais kontroversijos
EN title: Controversies Surrounding the History of Seizure of Klaipėda (1944–1945)

Abstract and Full Text
The article compares historical literature that conveys the Soviet story of ‘liberation’ of Memel/Klaipėda during World War II, and compares them with post-war German publications dealing with the issue of seizure of Klaipėda that emerged in the post-war period. On the basis of this comparison, verification is sought of the story of ‘liberation’, highlighting its major factual and interpretational problems. The analysis corrects some episodes of the story of Klaipėda’s seizure, thoroughly covering the course of World War II events in the approach of the Eastern Front toward Klaipėda during the period from October 1944 till the end of January 1945.
Key Words: World War II, Memel operation, East Prussia, Klaipėda, historiographical controversies.

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Nijolė STRAKAUSKAITĖ
Kuršių nerija – pasitraukimo kelias: atminties tiltas
EN title: The Curonian Spit as the Retreat Road and the Bridge of Memory

Abstract and Full Text
The end of the Second World War vitally influenced the fate of East Prussia not only from a historical point of view, but also its collective memory. The main object of the article is an analysis of the local aspects of this issue. This included the Curonian Spit as an important evacuation route for Klaipėda/Memel inhabitants at the end of 1944 and a reflection of this process in the collective memory. An important aspect of this analysis is connected with the problem of contemporary Curonian Spit residents in relating with the past as a part of their identity.
Key Words: East Prussia, Curonian Spit, local history, collective memory, evacuation, historical exposition, identity.

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Arminas ŠTUOPYS
Antrojo pasaulinio karo laikotarpio tunelinės konstrukcijos slėptuvės Memelyje / Klaipėdoje
EN title: Memel / Klaipėda Air-raid Shelters of the Second World War Period

Abstract and Full Text
Technical and technological construction questions of Memel / Klaipėda tunnel bombshelters of the World War II are analyzed in the following article. These questions help to reconstruct historical aspects of function and presumable purpose of these bombshelters during the siege of the town. The researches allowed to systematize the attributes, typical of such constructions. For the research of bombshelters’ constructions and materials, a comparative method was used: the received results were compared with analogous research results of Memel / Klaipėda and its surroundings’ structures – antiaircraft (Flak) and coast artillery battery – which functioned during the World War II. The constructions of remained German bombshelters are more than modest; the technological mistakes allow suppose, that the builders of the shelters didn’t dispose such material and human resources like ones of the batteries. Beside this, the durability of the bombshelters leads to believe that builders used some building materials of high quality, for example, the slag cement, the waterproof concrete and plaster.
Key Words: tunnel bombshelters, siege of Memel, battery of anti-aircraft (Flak) artillery, battery of coastal artillery, slag cement.

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THE CONDITIONS OF CIVILIANS IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE WAR

Дмитрий МАНКЕВИЧ, Мария МАНКЕВИЧ / Dmitry MANKEVICH, Maria MANKEVICH
Некоторые демографические аспекты гражданского населения Восточной Пруссии / Калининградской области (апрель 1945-1947 гг.)
EN title: Civilian Population of East Prussia – Königsberg / Kaliningrad Region (April 1945-1947): Some Demographical Aspects of the Existance

Abstract and Full Text
Based on documents in the Kaliningrad Regional State Archive, the article considers the health of the German population and Soviet people in East Prussia (the territory of the Special Military District and subsequently – the Kaliningrad Region). Factors, such as provisioning/nutrition, the state and dynamics of the health care system and living conditions that influenced the civilian population’s incidences of disease and mortality rates during the first post-war years are examined. Special attention is given to the lives of German and Soviet children in the East Prussia in 1945-1947.
Key Words: East Prussia, civilian population, settlers, health care system, mortality, living conditions, nutrition, diseases.

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Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
„Kaliningrado vokiečių“ klausimo išsprendimas (?): Lietuva, 1951-ieji metai
EN title: Solution (?) of the Case “Kaliningrad Germans”: Lithuania, 1951

Abstract and Full Text
The purpose of this paper is to examine the solution (?) of the case. People, because of famine and the occupation of the East Prussia by the Stalinists, fled the Kaliningrad region to Lithuania and other regions in search of bread and work. How many were there? There are hypothesis that 5-7 thousand or more people from Kaliningrad roamed Lithuania in 1946-1947. After the deportation of the ethnic people from the Königsberg/Kaliningrad region in 1947-1949, the MGB and Soviet militia structures searched for them in the neighbouring territories. The net result of the action was the deportation of the so called “Kaliningrad Germans” in 10-12 May, 1951 from Lithuania to Germany. The total amount of deportees, who declared their birth place as East Prussia, was 3415 persons from Lithuania and 275 other regions. The principal result of these deportations of unnecessary, ideologically foreign people was that East Prussia became homogeneously Soviet and all that remained of Königsberg and East Prussia were historical facts.
Key Words: Kaliningrad Germans, ethnic people, East Prussia, Königsberg, deportation, Lithuania.

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Teresė Birutė BURAUSKAITĖ
Nukentėjusieji dėl kilmės: Lietuvos etninių vokiečių tremtis 1945 m.
EN title: The Injured for the Origin: Deportation of Ethnic Germans from Lithuania in 1945

Abstract and Full Text
The repressive politics of the Soviet Union between 1939-1941 and 1939-1958, which affected 1 in 10 Lithuanians, is well researched by Russian and Lithuanian researchers. The most important archival documents and research have been published. Few, however, know of the deportation from Lithuania to Tajikistan at the end of the Second World War of a small Lithuanian minority of German ancestry. In this article, the selection criteria and other circumstances that led to the deportation of this 908 person group, that were considered “enemies of the State” in 22-26 of April, 1945, is defined using the electronic database gathered at the Centre of the Research of Genocide and Resistance in Lithuania, documents from the KGB archive and diaries and memoirs of the deportees themselves. Comparisons are made between the treatment of “enemy nationals” of German, Japanese or Italian ancestry by the democratic allies – USA, Britain and Canada and totalitarian USSR.
Key Words: “enemy nationality”, forced migration, exile, internees, NKVD, NKGB.

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Геннадий КРЕТИНИН, Ольга ФЁДОРОВА / Gennady KRETININ, Olga FIODOROVA
Клайпедский край после окончания Второй мировой войны
EN title: Klaipėda Region after the End of the Second World War

Abstract and Full Text
Analysis of the contemporary Lithuanian historiography indicates a lack of research by historians of the socio-economic aspects of Klaipėda’s post-war history. Methods of settling the rural territory of Klaipėda region and the Klaipėda-city are examined. The specifics of involving specialists from various sectors in the reconstruction and the activities of the Soviet Lithuanian leadership are discussed.
Key Words: restoration, Klaipėda region, industry, agriculture, settlement, specialists, leadership.

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Светлана ГАЛЬЦОВА / Svetlana GALTSOVA
Судьба Валленродтской библиотеки в послевоенный период
EN title: The Wallenrodt Library Collection in Post War Period

Abstract and Full Text
The article is dedicated to the dramatic history of the Wallenrodt library – the book repository in Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad) of the 17th-20th centuries. The Wallenrodt library was given space in the Königsberg main cathedral, which was in close proximity to the University. In the 19th century, the library contained about 10,000 books and manuscripts. In 1909, United Library of Königsberg acquired custodianship of this famous book collection. In March, 1945, as fighting approached Königsberg, the books were packed into 200 boxes, but were not taken from the city. On the 6th of April, Königsberg was attacked by the Red Army. It is impossible to give a complete accounting of the post-war fate of this precious book collection. Luckily, Kaliningrad inherited a small, but invaluable, because of its authenticity, part of book treasury of the former Königsberg book repository. Old books are the pearls of the University Museum and the return of this collection to its native town has a very symbolic meaning.
Key Words: Wallenrodt Library, foundation, cultural value, post-war history, Museum of IKSUR (I. Kant State University of Russia).

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SCHOLARLY PUBLICATIONS

Jurijus KOSTIAŠOVAS / Yury KOSTYASHOV
Prūsiškosios dvasios išvarymas. Kaip formavosi Kaliningrado srities gyventojų istorinė sąmonė pokario metais
“Conjuration of Prussian Spirits: How the Historical Consciousness of the Postwar Kaliningrad Region Residents Had Been Formed?”. The translation into Lithuanian of the in 2003 issued publication „Изгнание прусского духа: как формировалось историческое сознание населения Калининградской области в послевоенные годы“ (translated by A. L. Arbušauskaitė)
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SOURCE PUBLICATIONS

Martynas BRAKAS
Autobiografija
Source:
Martyno Brako archyvas Amerikos lietuvių kultūros archyve (ALKA) Putname (JAV)
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Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
„Klaipėdos krašte nėra nė vienos šeimos, iš kurios nebūtų kas nors atimta“
List of sources:
Klaipėdos miesto ir apskrities vykdomojo komiteto pirmininko pavaduotojo Juozapavičiaus pranešimas Lietuvos TSR Liaudies komisarų tarybos pirmininkui drg. Gedvilui „Apie padėtį Klaipėdos krašte“ (1944-12-24, Priekulė);
NKVD operatyvinės grupės Priekulėje vyr. leitenanto Kazakovo pranešimas Lietuvos TSR vidaus reikalų liaudies komisarui drg. Bertašiūnui „Bendra padėtis Klaipėdos krašto Priekulės valsčiuje“ (1944-12-24, Priekulė);
LTSR NKVD Klaipėdos operatyvinės grupės viršininko valstybės saugumo kapitono Kuzmino specialus pranešimas Lietuvos TSR valstybės saugumo liaudies komisarui drg. Guzevičiui „Apie padėtį Klaipėdos krašte“ (1944-12-24, Pangiriai);
Lietuvos KP(b) Klaipėdos valsčiaus ir miesto komitetų sekretoriaus Šilino pranešimas Tarybų Sąjungos didvyrio generolo leitenanto Beloborodovo karo tarybos nariui generolui majorui draugui Osinui; kopija: Lietuvos KP(b) CK sekretoriui drg. Sniečkui (1945-01-08).
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REVIEWS
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Alvydas NIKŽENTAITIS
Miestas Vakaruose: kaip Kenigsbergas tapo Kaliningradu (A Review of: BRODERSEN, Per. Die Stadt im Westen. Wie Königsberg Kaliningrad wurde. Göttingen: Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008)

Ilya DEMENTYEV
The Memory Book of Political Repressions Victims (A Review of: Книга памяти жертв политических репрессий: Калининградская область. Сост. Е. СМИРНОВА, В. МАСЛОВ. Калининград: Терра Балтика, 2007)

Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Pralaimėjusioji Vokietija ir vokiečiai sąjungininkų gniaužtuose (A Review of: MACDONOGH, Giles. After the Reich: the brutual history of the allied occupation. New York: Basic Books, 2007)

SCIENTIFIC LIFE
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Lina MOTUZIENĖ
Istorinės atminties problematika Klaipėdos, Olštyno ir Kaliningrado srities mokslininkų dėmesio centre

Hektoras VITKUS
Apginta Klaipėdos universiteto ir Lietuvos istorijos instituto doktoranto Mariaus Ščavinsko disertacija

Ieva MASIULIENĖ
Klaipėdos universitete apginta Klaido Permino daktaro disertacija „XVI–XX a. luotai iš dabartinių Lietuvos ir Latvijos teritorijų“