Volume 17

Acta Hictorica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 17Nauji požiūriai į Klaipėdos miesto ir krašto praeitį
The City and Region of Klaipėda: New Approaches to the Past

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XVII

Editors: Silva Pocytė, Vasilijus Safronovas

Klaipėda, 2008


FOREWORD
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I. 750TH ANNIVERSARY OF SELF-GOVERNMENT OF KLAIPĖDA

Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Klaipėdos vietinio valdymo sistema: istorinių tyrimų būklė, problemos, perspektyvos
EN title: The System of Klaipėda’s Local Administration. Present Situation, Problems and Prospects of Its Historical Investigation

Abstract and Full Text
The article aims to systematize the historiographic knowledge of Klaipeda’s self-government and local administration, to show research problems and to propose potential directions for prospective research. The author distinguishes three stages in the development of local administration, analyses the particularities of these stages, explores the state of local administrative structures, competence, and mechanisms, and discusses the accessibility of sources necessary for research of such topics. Special attention is given to the research results of administration systems from 1945-1990, as well as a review of issues related to the legal status between a sovereign and the citizenry of Klaipėda while it was part of the state of the Teutonic Order.
Key Words: Klaipėda, self-government, system of local administration, historiographic problems, periodization, Lübeck Law, Kulm Law.

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Jolanta KARPAVIČIENĖ
Liubeko ir Magdeburgo teisių raiška Europoje viduramžiais ir ankstyvaisiais naujaisiais laikais
EN title: Development of the Lübeck and Magdeburg Law in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Early New Ages

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes polysemous phenomenon of the history of European law and historical culture of European cities, the part of which is granting the privileges of the Lübeck and Kulm Law to Klaipėda in the Middle Ages. The development of the Lübeck and Magdeburg Law and the modification of the latter, the Kulm Law, is researched by historians, law and culture history experts of many European countries in various aspects, however, this phenomenon has not been systematically presented in the Lithuanian research literature. Therefore, basing the present investigation on the generalized analyses of the researchers working in Germany and in other countries, the article introduces the features of the historical development of the Lübeck, Magdeburg and Kulm Law. This article accords a particular attention to the analysis of the genesis of the medieval German towns’ laws, as well as the reasons and ways of their dispersion. The article also investigates the historical circumstances and factors which determined the expansion of the Lübeck and Magdeburg Law in the Middle Europe and to the East of Europe during the Middle and the Early New Ages. The ways, chronology, and area of the transfer eastwards of these laws are introduced. The sources and transformations of these laws are also analyzed in the article. The historical context of the emergence of the Kulm Law is discussed. The significance of these laws in the Middle and East Europe is presented in general outline in the article.
Key Words: medieval city, German towns’ laws, Saxon-Magdeburg Law, Lübeck Law, Kulm Law, Teutonic Order, Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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II. FEATURES OF HISTORY OF KLAIPĖDA CITY AND THE REGION IN THE 15TH–20TH CENTURIES

Mindaugas BRAZAUSKAS
XVI–XVIII amžių Klaipėdos pastatų tipai ir chronologija
EN title: The Types and Chronology of the 16th–18th Century Buildings of Klaipėda

Abstract and Full Text
The aim of this article is to define the wooden building types, identification issues, problems of dating structures built in the 16th – 18th century, and to determine the beginnings of masonry construction in Klaipėda. The identified development of Klaipėda construction from wooden towards masonry buildings as well as chronological definitions of the building types and construction materials used, enables review of previously conducted archaeological and the dating of findings.
Key Words: archaeology, Klaipėda, types of buildings, chronology.

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Julius ŽUKAS
Lietuva ir Klaipėdos problema: istoriko akimis per klasikinės geopolitikos prizmę
EN title: Lithuania and the Question of Klaipėda: A View of a Historian from a Classical Geopolitical Perspective

Abstract and Full Text
This paper investigates the question – why the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the peak of its power in the 15th century, failed to acquire Klaipeda, its natural gateway to the sea, whereas the young post World War I state of Lithuania, having lost its historic capital – Vilnius, managed to annex Klaipėda and its region (Memelland). Historic facts and events, as well as evaluations and conclusions presented by Lithuanian and foreign historians, are examined by invoking classic and Lithuanian geopolitical statements and insights. Expansion to the East, which was intrinsic to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at this time, is analysed as a major cause of its inability to expand to the Baltic shore. Opportunities to capture Klaipėda presented by the Thirteen Year War between Poland and the Teutonic Order in the 1450-60’s are evaluated. The 1923 annexation of Klaipėda and its region by Lithuania is shown as the result of a favourable geopolitical situation.
Key Words: question of Klaipėda, geopolitics, expansion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the East, Vytautas the Great, the Versailles System.

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Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Praeities panauda palaikant lietuvišką tapatumo orientaciją tarpukario Klaipėdoje
EN title: Utilization of the Past for the Maintenance of Lithuanian Identity Orientation in Interwar Klaipėda

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyses the relation to the past of Lithuanian identity orientation in the interwar Klaipėda with reference to cultural memory theory. It defines the semantics used in Lithuanian identity ideology, highlights the differences in the concepts of “Lithuanianicity” between local (Prussian) Lithuanians and the state of Lithuania, analyses the possibilities of introduction of Lithuanian identity orientation into public communication, as well as plots and motifs of the past, which were used for such introduction. It also researches formation and structure of the Prussian Lithuanian’s self-image of the past, and the methods used in interwar Klaipėda of consolidating this self-image into public culture of commemoration.
Key Words: cultural memory, identity orientation, ideology of identity, semantics of Lithuanianicity, the Prussian Lithuanians, Klaipėda, self-image of the past, integration, legitimation.

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Saulius BARTNINKAS; Vasilijus SAFRONOVAS
Klaipėdos krašto gyventojų pronacistinių orientacijų XX a. 4-ajame dešimtmetyje vertinimo problema
EN title: Pro-Nazi Orientation in Klaipėda Region in the 1930’s: The Problem of Its Evaluation

Abstract and Full Text
The objective of the article is verification of the images related to the pro-Nazi orientation of population of Klaipėda Region in 1930’s which was formed in propaganda discourse and Lithuanian Soviet historiography during the interwar and post-war period. Disassociating the material from the incriminatory attitude, which prevailed in Soviet historiography, the authors analyse the support for National Socialism in Klaipėda Region, define the reasons for this support, characterize the motives for involvement in the local pro-Nazi structures of the local population, and the aims of the NSDAP for maintaining these structures. The article distinguishes three stages of adaptation of National Socialism in Klaipėda Region as well as peculiarities of this adaptation.
Key Words: Klaipėda Region, National Socialism, NSDAP, Neumann-Sass case, CSA, SOVOG, Kulturverband, historiographical images, anti-Semitism.

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Sandra GRIGARAVIČIŪTĖ
Skandinavijos valstybių konsulatai Klaipėdoje (1924–1939) vietinio konsulinio korpuso kontekste
EN title: Scandinavian Consulates in Klaipėda (1924–1939) in the Context of Local Consulate Corps

Abstract and Full Text
The author of the article aims to distinguish and characterize the major stages in the development of the diplomacy centre in Klaipėda in 1920–1939; the author elucidates the circumstances of the pro-German and pro-Lithuanian consul group formation; discusses the cases of the Danish honorary consul Gerhard Schmaeling and the Swedish honorary consul Karl Wiese; the author also discloses the means by which Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Governor endeavored to restore the balance between pro-German and pro-Lithuanian forces in the consulate corps of foreign countries in Klaipėda. To clarify the above-mentioned issues, the author used the following sources: the materials from the Lithuanian Central State Archive, the periodicals of interwar Lithuanian as well as the latest historical researches.
Key Words: Klaipėda, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, honorary consul, consulate, the Governor of Klaipėda region, Gerhard Schmaeling, Karl Wiese, Antanas Merkys.

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Ingrida JAKUBAVIČIENĖ
Vokietijos generalinis konsulatas – pagrindinis politinis Klaipėdos krašto gubernatoriaus varžovas XX amžiaus 3–4-uoju dešimtmečiais
EN title: The German Consulate General in Klaipėda – the Main Political Rival of the Governor of Klaipėda Region (1920–1930’s)

Abstract and Full Text
On the basis of historical sources and investigations, the article analyses the German policy towards the Klaipėda region and the role of German general consulate. The consulate and the Lithuanian governor of the Klaipėda region competed for influence over and control of the political and economical life of the region. Three phases of the competition between the consulate and the Lithuanian governor are considered. The author puts special emphasis on the struggle between Consuls M. F. Mudra, O. Toepke, R. von Saucken and governors A. Merkys and J. Navakas in their attempt to defend Lithuania’s sovereignty in the region.
Key Words: German General Consulate in Klaipėda, the Governor of Klaipėda Region, Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, NSDAP, the Landtag of Klaipėda Region, the Directorate.

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Linas TAMULYNAS
Krašto muziejaus draugija ir Krašto muziejus Klaipėdoje. Archeologinės veiklos aspektai 1924–1939 m.
EN title: The Society of Regional Museum and the Regional Museum in Klaipėda. Archaeological Activity in 1924–1939

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyses available information concerning the Regional Museum Society in Klaipėda (1924-1939). The paper presents the archaeological material that the Society’s members collected, investigated and presented, as well as evaluates the proceedings of the Society. In 1924, the only public organization seeking to establish a museum – Regional Museum – was founded in Klaipėda. German, as well as Lithuanian intellectuals took part in the activities of the Society during the initial stage. In 1931, the Society achieved its main goal – Regional Museum was opened in Klaipėda. The character of the Society’s activities predetermined its adoption of an East Prussian public-scientific organizational structure. Political events of 1933-1934 in Germany (National Socialist Party came to power) and in Klaipėda (pro-Lithuanian government established) changed the character of the Society – it became a regional studies organization with its activities restricted to a local scale.
Key Words: history of archaeology, Klaipėda Region, Regional Museum, Regional Museum Society.

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Daiva MASILIAUSKIENĖ
Klaipėdos krašto naujakuriai pokario metais: ką apie juos žinome?
EN title: The Settlers of Klaipėda Region in the Post-war Period. What Do We Know about Them?

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyzes the extent to which the historiographic topic of the post-World War II settlers of the Klaipeda region has been studied. Existing research is examined to determine which topics have been re-searched and which have not yet been studied. The research of the post-World War II settlers of the Klaipėda region is compared to research of the former East Prussian territories including the Kaliningrad region, Varmia and Masuria.
Key Words: Klaipėda region, East Prussia, migration, mew settlers, oral history.

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Saulius GRYBKAUSKAS
Klaipėdos pramonės plėtra sovietinės lietuvių nomenklatūros interesų kontekste
EN title: The Development of Klaipėda’s Industry in the Context of Interests of Lithuanian Soviet Nomenclature

Abstract and Full Text
The article analyses the attitude of the Soviet Lithuanian nomenclature towards industrial development in Klaipeda, as well as its position relative to other regions in Lithuania. In contrast to other Lithuanian ci-ties and districts, Soviet era Klaipėda inherited an existing economic structure. Consequently, the expansion goals of the enterprises influenced the city’s development more than the government’s long-range plans and strategies. The attitude of Lithuanian nomenclature towards Klaipėda’s development is seen in the long-term strategies prepared by the government of Soviet Lithuanian. In the article, the behaviour of Klaipėda city administrators is seen in opposition to the interests of Soviet Lithuanian nomenclature. In contrast, the close relationship of city administrators and managers of Soviet enterprises stimulated Klaipėda’s industrial growth.
Key Words: Soviet nomenclature, industrial development, union-subordination enterprises, Soviet functionaries.

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SOURCE PUBLICATIONS

Vygantas VAREIKIS
Šauliai, sukilėliai, savanoriai
EN title: Insurgents, Riflemen, Volunteers
Source:
Lietuvos šaulių sąjungos vadų, etatinių tarnautojų, šaulių, partizanų ir savanorių, 1923 m. sausio-vasario mėnesiais dalyvavusių Klaipėdos užėmimo kampanijoje, sąrašas (1923-09-21 d. Šaulių Sąjungos įsakymas Nr. 8)

Abstract and Full Text
The article is based on documents from the Lithuanian State Central Archive, memoirs and historical studies of Lithuanian authors. It is devoted to new historical investigations of the Klaipėda Uprising in 1923, its political preparation, the military operation itself, the role of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union, the social position and place of origin of the Lithuanian volunteers. A list of volunteers, partisans and riflemen, who participated in the Klaipėda Uprising, is presented in the appendix for the first time.
Key Words: Klaipėda uprising, Supreme Salvation Committee of Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union, Jonas Budrys-Polovinskas, Ernestas Galvanauskas, Vincas Krėvė, volunteers, Klaipėda Regional Army.

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REVIEWS
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Nijolė STRAKAUSKAITĖ
Rytprūsiškumo variacijos: nuo monolito iki mozaikos (A Review of: TRABA, Robert. „Wschodniopruskość“. Tożsamość regionalna i narodowa w kulturze politycznej Niemiec. Wyd. 3. niezm. Olsztyn: Wspólnota kulturowa „Borussia“, 2007)

Vacys VAIVADA
Žemaitija ar Žemoji Lietuva? (A Review of: NIENDORF, Mathias. Das Großfürstentum Litauen. Studien zur Nationsbildung in der Frühen Neuzeit (1569-1795). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006)

Arūnas BAUBLYS
Dievo apvaizdos pėdsakai nuo Mintaujos iki Karaliaučiaus… (A Review of: SCHOENBORN, Ulrich. “…ich sehe die Fußstapffen der Providentz Gottes”: Zum Wirken des hessischen Theologen Conrad Mel (1666–1733) in Mitau, Memel und Königsberg (Arbeiten zur Historischen und Systematischen Theologie, Bd. 10). Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2006)

Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Naujojo kelio pradžioje: nupūtus archyvines dulkes (A Review of: В начале нового пути: Документы и материалы о развитии Калининградской области в годы деятельности чрезвычайных органов управления (апрель 1945 – июнь 1947). Сост. В. МАСЛОВ. Калининград: Изд-во ИП Мишуткиной И.В., 2004)

Nijolė STRAKAUSKAITĖ
Nuo Memelburgo iki Klaipėdos – 99 istorijos (A Review of: VAREIKIS, Vygantas. 99 Klaipėdos miesto istorijos. Klaipėda: Druka, 2008)

SCIENTIFIC LIFE
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Marius ŠČAVINSKAS
Apie žmonių žvejus. Konferencija „Krikščioniškosios misijos Baltijos rytinėje pakrantėje: teorija ir praktika“

Algirdas GIRININKAS
Tarptautinė konferencija „Žirgas ir žmogus Europos priešistorėje (pasaulėžiūra, laidojimo apeigos, karinis ir kasdienis gyvenimas)“

Arūnė Liucija ARBUŠAUSKAITĖ
Antrojo pasaulinio karo pabaiga Rytų Prūsijoje: faktai ir istorinė atmintis

Klaipėdos universiteto istorijos krypties doktorantūros studijų rezultatas: apgintos pirmosios Klaipėdos universiteto auklėtinių daktaro disertacijoS