Volume 15

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 15Baltijos regiono istorija ir kultūra: Lietuva ir Lenkija. Karinė istorija, archeologija, etnologija
History and Culture of Baltic Region: Lithuania and Poland. Military History, Archaeology, Ethnology

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XV

Editor Rimantas Sliužinskas

Klaipėda, 2007




Organization of Teutonic Military Infrastructure on Curonian Spit from 1283 A.D. up to 1525 A.D.

Curonian Spit played a key role in medieval transport for Teutonic Order in 13th – 16th C. It ought to be presented again, since last essays about this subject originate from before the Second World War. The given term ‘infrastructure’ should be explained as castles or hostels (German: nachtleger) and other important points of military activity and thus all problems that refer to their functionality. Those subjects cannot be properly described without referring to written administration sources. Also organization of the Church on Curonian Spit will be presented, as it will contribute greatly to final conclusions. This work does not cover Lithuanian achievements in this field of interest, with exclusion of Nijole Strakauskaites’ recent work about the Spit (2004), which however isn’t about this subject. It is not a widespread subject of scholarship nowadays and it is also hardly known in Poland. This article is also a leap to create a monograph about Curonian Lagoon and it’s similarities to Vistula Lagoon as well as Hel Peninsula in the future.
Key Words: medieval transport, Teutonic Order, military infrastructure, Curonian Spit, Vistula Lagoon, Hel Peninsula, Lithuanian history of 13th – 16th C.

Dariusz NAWROT
Napoleon and Formation of Lithuania’s Authority during the Campaign in 1812

The article is devoted to the new historical investigations on Napoleon and formation of Lithuania’s authority during the campaign in 1812. Preparing for the confrontation with Russia in 1812, Napoleon hoped for a quick result of his campaign through fighting a decisive battle with the army of Alexander I on the territory of Lithuania. However, he also took into consideration another variant of the war progress and assumed the necessity of the wealth mobilization of the former Republic of Poland’s land which belonged to Russia. It is obvious that Napoleon did not have any final or the only plan for political course of action concerning the area of western gubernyas conquered by the French.
Key Words: History of Lithuania, history of Poland, beginning of the 19th C., Napoleon, campaign in 1812, Lithuania’s authority, confrontation with Russia, Alexander I, western gubernyas.

Waldemar REZMER
Powstanie w Kłajpedzie w 1923 r. w świetle materiałów Oddziału II Sztabu Generalnego Wojska Polskiego
EN title: The Klaipėda Rebellion 1923 in the Light of Documents of the Department II of the General Headquarters of the Polish Army

The article is devoted to the new historical investigations on the Klaipėda Rebellion 1923 in the light of documents of the Department II of the General Headquarters of the Polish Army. By the decision of the victorious Entente the Klaipėda region was separated from Germany and placed under French administration. In autumn 1922 the Lithuanian political and military leaders decided to organize a rebellion in Klaipėda. Poland had no intention as well to intervene military, nevertheless observed the course of events in Klaipėda very carefully. From 1921 there was a Polish mission established in Klaipėda, possessing the rank of a consular agency. The situation in the Klaipėda region was evaluated also by Polish diplomats. From the beginning of January 1923 they provided the Polish Ministry of International Affairs with information (cryptograms, reports) relating to the course of events in the Klaipėda region. This information is still preserved in Warsaw.
Key Words: Klaipėda region, Klaipėda Rebellion 1923, Entente, Polish Army, Germany, French administration, Polish mission in Klaipėda, Polish diplomacy.

Jarosław CENTEK
The Military Potential of the Reichswehr in East Prussia in January 1923

The year 1923 was a critical moment in the history of the Weimar Republic. Due to Germany’s delay in paying war reparations, French and Belgian forces occupied the Ruhr region in January. Shortly afterwards the Lithuanians seized Memel (now Klaipėda), which in the Treaty of Versailles had been declared a Free City with a French Governor and garrison. German public opinion was outraged by this situation. In the press, a campaign against Lithuania was started. The article is devoted to publish the results of research on the military potential of Reichswehr in East Prussia in January 1923. The hypothesis concerning the military Reichswehr impossibility to influence the Klaipėda events has to be examined in this article.
Key Words: military potential, Reichswehr, East Prussia, January 1923 events in Klaipėda.

Aleksander SMOLIŃSKI
Wileńskie i litewskie początki 13 Pułku Ułanów Wojska Polskiego
EN title: Vilnius and Lithuanian Rudiments of the Polish 13th Lancers Regiment

The article is devoted to the military history research of Vilnius and Lithuanian rudiments of the Polish 13th Lancers Regiment. At the end of 1918 the situation with the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania was complicated as the German Army had left this area and the Red Army wanted to take it over. It is worth noticing that Polish society was willing to organize military self-defence to protect themselves from Bolshevik attacks. The most important moment of forming the Polish units was at the end of December 1918 at Pośpieszka estate where the 1st Lancers Regiment of Vilnius was formed. Then it fought the Bolsheviks at the end of 1918 and in January 1919. This way the new page of Polish military history was opened.
Key Words: military history, military self-defence, the 1st Vilnius Lancers Regiment, the 13th Polish Lancers Regiment, German Army, Red Army.

Siły morskie nad Bałtykiem w okresie międzywojennym
EN title: Navy Forces of the Baltic Sea in Interwar Period

The article is devoted to the results of the new historical investigations concerning the functions of Navy Forces on the Baltic Sea in interwar period. The military authorities of all particular states of Baltic region have had quite different conceptions of their own Navy Forces development at that time in case of some serious military conflict. Enough important influence of such differences may be certified to the objective reasons, concerning the state of Baltic Sea as close area sea, as well as to economic and military potential of each particular state in Baltic region.
Key Words: Navy forces, interwar period, Baltic region, Baltic States, military power, military authorities.

Polskie reakcje na zajęcie Kłajpedy przez Niemcy w 1939 r.
EN title: Polish Reactions to the Annexation of Klaipėda by Germany in 1939

The article is devoted to the new historical research works on Polish reactions to the annexation of Klaipėda by Germany in 1939. Poland took into consideration the possibility of the German occupation of Klaipėda from the end 1938. The Foreign Minister J. Beck declared to the British ambassador in Warsaw H. Kennard that the government maintains a restrained attitude in case of a crisis caused by the issue of Klaipėda. Simultaneously, in interviews for the press, he categorically denied any possibility of Poland and German agreement at the expense of Lithuania. In spring and summer of 1939 the Polish government was very anxious to maintain good relationships with Lithuania. The policy of neutrality declared by Lithuania was received with great satisfaction.
Key Words: Annexation of Klaipėda, history of Lithuania in 1939, history of Klaipėda in 1939, German occupation, Polish reaction, Polish–Lithuanian relationships in 1939, policy of neutrality.


Andrzej KOLA, Krzysztof RADKA
Sprawozdanie z archeologicznych badań podwodnych, przeprowadzonych na reliktach mostu późnośredniowiecznego i na stanowisku Kryžiavonės Kalva w jeziorze Plateliai na Litwie
EN title: Relicts of Late Medieval Bridges at Kryžiavonės Kalva and Lake Plateliai Area, Lithuania: Underwater Archaeology Research

The article is devoted to the report on the underwater archaeological research, July 03-20, 2006, where relicts of the late medieval bridge at Kryžiavonės kalva and Lake Plateliai area, Lithuania were investigated. The research work team was formed from two institutions. The students of Underwater Archaeology specialization together with members of Academic Club of Underwater Research, Department of Underwater Archaeology, UMK took part from Polish side. Underwater archaeologist Prof. Vladas Žulkus (KU Rector at present), scientific workers of Institute of Baltic Sea Region History and Archaeology together with Archaeology specialization students, Department of History, KU, took part at this project from Lithuanian side. The main goal of the works was clear localization and schematization of the bridge, preparing visual information (photos, paintings) of its particular details. Members of the working group had to define the Kryžiavonės kalva placement contours of the shoal, also making the detailed charts and paintings of the underwater locality.
Key Words: underwater archaeology, Plateliai lake, UMK in Torun, Klaipėda University, underwater bridge, medieval excavations, charts, paintings, stones.

Wojciech SZULTA
Średniowieczne mosty Litwy w świetle podwodnych badań archeologicznych
EN title: Medieval Bridges in the Lithuania: View of Underwater Archaeological Research

The article is devoted to the new underwater archaeology research results on mediaeval bridges in Lithuania. Localization of the bridge in Plateliai had been known for a long time thanks to visible timbers on the surface of the lake, during the period of low water. In 1998 Vladas Žulkus, in cooperation with group of divers, defined the detailed localization of the bridge’s sequence, the condition of its relics and some details about the building’s structure also were defined. Further underwater surveys were made after taking up cooperation in a field of underwater researches between the Centre of History of Western Lithuania and Prussia (Institute of Baltic Sea Region History and Archaeology at present) at Klaipėda University and the Institute of Archaeology at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The relics of other late medieval bridges were also discovered in Dubingiai at the Asvejos Lake and in the place called Zarasai in the lake of the same name.
Key Words: medieval bridges, Lithuanian lakes, underwater archaeological research, underwater archaeological excavations, underwater surveys.

Dugouts from Lake Plateliai and the Cultural Landscape of their Sites

The article is devoted to the new results of underwater archaeological investigations of dugouts from the Lake Plateliai (Žemaitija, West Lithuania) and the cultural landscape of their sites. In this article we will discuss on three dugouts, found in the surroundings of Pilies Island (Castle Island) and peninsula of Šventorkalnis (Saint Mountain) in the western part of the lake. Dugout Nr. 1 was found not far from the remains of the bridge. Dugouts Nr. 1-2 distinguish for their decorative details – back parts are ‘gracefully’ raised, there are some other decorative as well as practical elements. Dugout Nr. 3 was found not far away from Pilies Island, southwards from the remains of the old bridge, which connected the island with the Šventorkalnis peninsula. The absence of the front part of the dugout and the stones inside it give us a hint that the dugout might have been sunk deliberately. Most probably, the dugouts were mainly used for communication between the peninsula (the manor) and the island (the castle). All three dugouts were found in the line, where the distance between the peninsula and the island is the shortest. These coinsides with safe sailing manner – to reach land choosing the shortest way.
Key Words: underwater archaeology, Lake Plateliai, dugouts, carbon dating, finding place, cultural environment.


Symbolic Signs in Culture: a Gesture of Hand-Kissing, its Origin and Development in Lithuania in the 20th Century

Symbols, as a certain expression of signs, may be examined when concentrating on social functions of a sign or on logical functions of the same sign. This article deals with the place of signs (gestures) in communication not only in the eyes of the representatives of semiotics but also in the eyes of anthropologists and ethnologists. This article is restricted to the first group of gestures when non-verbal gestures appear as a part of ritual behaviour that is they are used in everyday situation at the moment of greeting. It is a hand-kissing which is the object of research in this article. The aim of the article is to reveal the origin of hand-kissing and follow the development of this gesture in Lithuania in the 20th century. The tasks there are: to examine forms of the expression of hand-kissing; to determine functions of ethical norms which regulate hand-kissing with regard to a sex, age, social status, degree of acquaintance; to show modifica­tions of the expression and normative functions of this gesture in a certain period of time. The work is grounded on the data of field works from the territory of the Republic of Lithuania collected in ethnographical expeditions in 1998-2005 by the author herself, and it is also based on the archive manuscript collections, as well as works on non-verbal communication published by other researchers.
Key Words: socio-cultural anthropology, gestures, symbolic signs, hand-kissing, ethnology, ethic norms, ethno-cultural identity.

Zamorska kolekcja nadmorskiego muzeum
EN title: An Overseas Collection of a Maritime Museum

The article recollects the history and activity of the National Museum in Szczecin. This institution, established as the Museum of West Pomerania in 1949, possesses rich collections of Polish and European art (old masters and modern art), collections of ethnographic and archaeological objects of Pomerania, of numismatics and an interesting maritime section. There is also a large ethnographic collection of non- European objects. The museum employees have been conducting their research in non-European countries for years, publishing their results in the museum publications. In the beginning the establishment of the Section of Non-European Cultures and gathering of the above mentioned first African collections were the result of the co-operation with institutions of sea and maritime economy that had helped in the organisation of expeditions to Africa. The paper characterises the above mentioned collection and educational work of the museum.
Key Words: National Museum, Szczecin, Museum of West Pomerania, Polish art, European art, ethnographic and archaeological objects, ethnographic collection, non-European art objects.

Karaimska mniejszość wyznaniowa na Litwie i w Polsce
EN title: The Karaitic Religion’s Minority in Lithuania and Poland

 The article is devoted to the new ethnographic and social research results on the Karaitic religion’s minority in Lithuania and Poland. After the last partition of Poland in 1795 main part of Karaites lived in Russia and was given some privileges by the tsars too. When Poles regained their independence and created new Polish Republic Karaites declared full loyalty towards it. During II World War Karaites were not ex-terminated by the Nazis like Jews although they easily could be taken for Jews because in Karaitic liturgy Hebrew language is still present. Today in Lithuania there are two main Karaitic centres: in Trakai and Vilnius with two churches still open. While visiting Trakai it is worth to see Karaitic wooden houses with three windows situated next to a road being a sign of presence of Karaitic community composed of 154 persons.
Key Words: Karaites, Jews, Hebrew language, Poland, Lithuania, national minorities, Karaitic com-munity, Trakai, Vilnius.

Polskie i litewskie kolędy wiosenne. Obrzed, gatunek, paralele
EN title: Polish and Lithuanian Spring Carols. Ritual, Genre, Parallelisms

The article is devoted to the new comparative ethnographic and ethno-musicological research results on Polish and Lithuanian spring carols, paying special attention for their ritual, genre, and parallelisms features. This genre of songs is classified in Polish folkloristic studies among carols, as the customs of going from door to door with łałymki and with Christmas carols have many analogies and many shared phrases; however, Christmas and spring carols are separate phenomena as regards their tunes and specific choruses. Author presents an initial analysis of both the rich symbolism of the rhymes and a musical typology of this song genre. Certain tune and rhyme types of łałymki are found both in Lithuania, Byelorussia and in Poland, even in distant locations.
Key Words: Polish folk songs, Lithuanian folk songs, Byelorussian folk songs, spring carols, Easter carols, ritual, genre, parallelisms, ‘łałymki’.

Sakralinė liaudies dailė ir jos puošyba Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje. Memorialiniai paminklai
EN title: Sacral Folk Art and its Decoration in Lithuania and Poland. Memorials

The article is devoted to the ethnographic and folk art research studies on sacral folk art and its decoration in Lithuania and Poland, paying attention on memorials of the roadsides, cemetery and other places. Lithuania and Poland are two neighbour countries with their landscapes decorated by sacral folk art and architectural works. The aim is to review the main attributes of the works of Lithuanian and Polish sacral folk art, to identify the similarities and differences of their decorations and methods of production. Nowadays memorials seen on the roadsides and cemeteries are the examples of folk art history, living tradition and influence of the industry and new technologies. They reflect the religious and cultural heritage of a nation. Memorials leave the first impression of the character and value system of a particular nation.
Key Words: sacral folk art, decoration, Lithuania, Poland, memorials at cemeteries and roadsides, landscapes, architectural works.

Alfonsas MOTUZAS
Kryžių kalno kultas Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje: tapatumai ir savitumai
EN title: The Cult of the Hill of Crosses in Lithuania and Poland: Identities and Peculiarities

The article is devoted to the ethnological and the religious culture history research results on the cult of the Hills of Crosses in Lithuania and Poland. It is typical to have still preserved the cult of the Hill of Crosses both in Lithuania and Poland. The Hill of Crosses in Lithuania is not far from the Šiauliai city, while in Poland – it is in Grabarka localities. The research allows us to make the conclusions about the identities (geographical situation, the origin of the cult, the heritage of the religious culture, and rituals), peculiarities (Catholic and Orthodox sanctuaries) and rituals here. The hypothesis was raised that the cult of the Hill of the Crosses in Lithuania and in Poland is a Christian symbol of the fights for religion and freedom.
Key Words: Hills of Crosses, Lithuania, Poland, Šiauliai, Grabarka, the origin of the cult, the heritage of the religious culture, rituals, Catholic and Orthodox sanctuaries, Christian symbol.

Cechy szczególne obrzędów ludowych na pograniczu języków i kultur
EN title: The Special Features of the Folk Rituals in the Border of Languages and Cultures

The presented here article analyses the features of a language occurring in the border. The results were achieved by using the ethno-linguistic method, which is based on the systematic analysis of the ritual structure and vocabulary. The object of the analysis was a little fragment of the spiritual culture – the winter period of the ritual year. The structure of the ritual was established according to the methodology as well as the terminology of rituals, which includes several lexical-semantic microfields, was analyzed. The research was carried out nearby Vilnius (region of Vilnius, partly Širvintai and Molėtai) and also in the regions close to Byelorussia (Šalčininkai and Švenčionys).
Key Words: language, local dialects, border region, Lithuania, Poland, ethno-linguistic research, ritual structure, folk spiritual culture.

Jaunosios vainikėlis pietryčių Lietuvos lenkų vestuvėse XX a. pabaigoje – XXI a. pradžioje
EN title: Bridal Coronet in Southeast Lithuanian Polish Wedding in the End of the 20th Century – Beginning of the 21st Century

The presented here article analyses the features of a language occurring in the border. The results were. Based on field research material and analysis of different authors the article analysis characteristics of Southeast Lithuanian Polish bridal coronet twinning and materials used for coronet. Customs of the first wedding day evening related to the symbol are analyzed. The task is to determine whether in Lithuanian Polish weddings bridal coronet is distinctive example of Lithuanian Polish wedding traditions or it is synthesis of Polish and Lithuanian wedding ceremony and customs. It is concluded that distinctive traditions of use of material for Southeastern Lithuanian Polish wedding coronet are developing. Also Lithuanian customs are taken over and treated meaningfully. Therefore during the wedding through symbol it is aimed to highlight ethno-cultural distinction of Southeastern Lithuanian population.
Key Words: wedding traditions, Lithuania, Poland, bridal coronet, rues, myrtles, coronet burning, coronet safekeeping.

Параллели мелодики народных песен этнических меньшинств Пруссии: летувининкай, мазуры, кашубы
EN title: Ethnic Minorities of the Prussia: Lietuvininkai, Masurians, Kashubians. Parallels in their Folk Song Melodies

The article is devoted to present the results of ethnomusicological research on parallels in folk song melodies of the Prussian ethnic minorities: Lietuvininkai, Masurians, Kashubians. In the history of ethnic groups of the south part of the West Prussia and East Prussia speaking dialects of the Polish language – Kashubs and Masurs – you may distinguish quite a lot of parallels with the history of the lietuvininkai (residents of Lithuania Minor). A more detailed analysis of the melodies of investigated ethnic groups permits to state that the melodies of the lietuvininkai evidently differ from Polish melodies by the character of intonation, rhythm and performance. Nevertheless, they have intonation complexes, rhythmic elements that are alien to the melodic lines of the lietuvininkai folk songs and could be absorbed from the Polish ethnic music.
Key Words: ‘Lietuvininkai’, Masurians, Kashubians, folk songs, melodic lines, West Prussia, East Prussia, Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian ethnic music, Polish ethnic music.

Paralele historyczne między źródłami litewskich i polskich pieśni ludowych i perspektywa badań porównawczych
EN title: Historical Parallels between the Publication and Studies of Lithuanian and Polish Folk Songs

The article is devoted to the results of ethno-musicological research on historical parallels between the publication and studies of Lithuanian and Polish folk songs. Lithuanian and Polish folk songs represent significant integral part of the musical folklore of those nations. They reflect common national and regional features of the world outlook and the mode of artistic expression of the folklore performers in different countries. Both Lithuanian and Polish folk songs have been published in different publications starting with the 18th century, and from the 19th century they started appearing in reputable many-volume collections of songs. Those were abundant, diverse, and manifold folklore materials that have been an independent object of research for several centuries. However, comparative studies of folk songs of both nations, of their lyrics and melodies, represent a totally new field of study.
Key Words: Lithuanian and Polish folk songs, musical folklore, national features, regional features, traditional world outlook, folklore publications, collections of folk songs, comparative studies.


Lenkijos konsulinė tarnyba (A Review of: SKÓRA, Wojciech. Służba konsularna Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej. Organizacja, kadry i działalność. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2006)

Paralelių pasaulių link (A Review of: SLIUŽINSKAS, Rimantas. Lietuvių ir lenkų liaudies dainų sąsajos. Klaipėda: Klaipėdos universiteto leidykla, 2006)

T. Katelbacho renesansas, arba mintys apie Slavomiro Cenckievičiaus monografiją „Tadeušas Katelbachas (1897–1977). Politinė biografija“ (A Review of: CENCKIEVICZ, Sławomir. Tadeusz Katelbach (1897–1977). Biografia polityczna. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo LTW, 2005)


Lietuvos ir Lenkijos istorija bei kultūra. Tarptautinė konferencija Klaipėdos universitete

Mokslinė konferencija „Krikščioniškų tradicijų formavimasis Lietuvoje: Mykolinės Žemaitijos rudens kalendoriuje“