Volume 14

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. 14Baltijos regiono istorija ir kultūra: Lietuva ir Lenkija. Socialinė istorija, kultūrologija
History and Culture of Baltic Region: Lithuania and Poland. Social History, Cultural Sciences

Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis, Vol. XIV

Editor Rimantas Sliužinskas

Klaipėda, 2007




Деятельность евреев-мытников Великого Княжества Литовского в конце XV – середине XVI века (на материалах Литовской Метрики)
EN title: The Activity of the Jewish Customs Officials of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the End of the 15th and the Middle of 16th Centuries (by the Lithuanian ‘Metrika’)

One of the greatest income items of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were customs – ‘myta’. Initially customs played the role of compensation for using of the real estate such as bridges, dams etc. On the other hand customs were a form of payment for the right of trade license, ownership of the pot-houses (inn), and also for production and sale of the alcoholic drinks. The purpose of the given work is to reflect the activity of the Jewish customs officials as collectors of the customs duties and to show the incomes which were brought by this activity (on the example of the richest Jewish tax-farmer).
Key Words: Lithuanian Metrics, Jewish customers, economic development, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, history of the end of the 15th Century, history of the middle of the 16th Century.

Дмитрий ВАЩУК / Dmitriy VASHCHUK
Судебная компетенция «старосты» Великого княжества Литовского во второй половине XV – первой трети XVI в. (на примере Волынской земли)
EN title: Jurisdiction “Starosty” of Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Second Half of the 15th – the First Third of the 16th century (On the Example of Volhyn Land)

The article is devoted to the problem of jurisdiction of ‘starosta’ (a medieval official) during the second half of the 15th – the first third of the 16th century. ‘Starosta’ was one from the most important officials in the Volhyn land. He was designated by the Great Lithuanian Duke. During this period the judicial duties of ‘starosta’ were regulated by the norms of legislative acts named ‘ustavna zems’ka gramota’ issued by great Lithuanian duke in their home policy. An author shows in his materials, that according to these documents ‘starosta’ was the main person at the time of legal proceedings.
Key Words: ‘starosta’, jurisdiction, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, history of the second half of the 15th Century, history of the first third of the 16th Century, Volhyn land.

Князья Великого княжества Литовского и Речи Посполитой в системе земельного оборота в XVI в. (на примере Луцкого повета Волынского воеводства)
EN title: Princes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland in the System of Landownership Circulation in the 16th Century (Example of Lutsk District of Volhyn Land)

The article is devoted to the historical studies of a princely landownership concentration in Volhyn lands in the 16th century. This landownership was the highest in all the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. According to historical materials, in first third of the 16th century Volhynian princes owned 44% of all landed fund of Volhyn (in correlation with ‘pans’ and ‘zemiane’ landownership; the royal and church was insignificant), in the last third it slightly grew up to 45 %. In the end of century these indexes remained unchanging. In Lutsk district of the Volhynian province a level of concentration of princely landownership was a few other. In last third of the 16th century princes owned 40 % lands, and on the end of century it percent correlation diminished to 38 %. Such calculations are conducted by author on materials of Lutsk deed books, and it allowed to trace and to analyze the specificity of the landed circulation of Volhynian princes in details.
Key Words: princely landownership, Volhyn land, Lutsk district, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, history of the 16th Century, deed books.

Władysław H. BERKOWSKI
Wołyńsko-gdańskie kontakty handlowe w XVI – pierwszej połowie XVII wieku
EN title: Volhynia-Gdansk Trading Contacts in the 16th – First Half of the 17th Centuries

Article presents historical and economic study of Volhynia–Gdańsk regional trade end economic zones during the period from the beginning of the 16th to the middle of the 17th centuries. Change of a dominating role of the Mediterranean economic region, decline of the territories concerned with it, and also processes of economic growth of the countries concerned with Baltic, considerably has affected commodity structure of Volhynia at that time. By these tendencies increases value of Volhynia in geography of the European trade. It was one of barter centres among the East and the West of the Europe. However, already from the middle of the 16th century occurred an active inclusion of the representatives of narrow-mindedness, clergy and gentry to the trade. During this period significantly increases the export to the international market through the Baltic trade and economic region.
Key Words: Volhynia region, Gdańsk, trading contacts, economic development, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, history of the 16th Century, history of the first part of the 17th Century.

The Radzivills towards the Heritage of the Sobieskis

The article is devoted to enlighten the relative and politic contacts on Radzivills towards the heritage of the Sobieskis. All events concerning this theme began with the marriage of Katarzyna Sobieska. She got married with Władysław Dominik Zasławski-Ostrogski in 1650. They had two children Aleksander Janusz who died young and with no children and Teofila Ludwika. We have no information about a dowry which Katarzyna should have got. Soon she was widowed by her twenty years older husband and in 1658 she got married to Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł. His brother-in-law Jan Sobieski became the voivode of Vilnius and high-standing person of the Great Duchy of Lithuania.
Key Words: history of Great Duchy of Lithuania, history of Poland and Lithuania in 17th – 18th C., Katarzyna Sobieska, Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł, Jan Sobieski.

Moda, rywalizacja społeczna i tożsamość szlachty w polsko-litewskiej Rzeczypospolitej w XVIII wieku
EN title: Fashion, Social Rivalry and Identity of Nobility in Polish-Lithuanian Republic in the 18th Century

The article presents research study on fashion, social rivalry and identity of nobility in Polish-Lithuanian Republic in the 18th Century. Research is based on the data obtained from widely drawn up inventories of movables allows us to give a social depth to the view constructed upon iconography and literature. The number of inventories, their social representation, connection to specified social group and period enable us to look at the history of fashion and other aspects of material culture considering different social, economic and cultural realities. Registers from the 18th century draw our greatest interest because of their number, reliability and quite equal spread over time.
Key Words: fashion, social rivalry, identity, nobility, Polish-Lithuanian Republic, history of Poland and Lithuania in 18th C., social representation, social groups.

Stanisław ROSZAK
Badania nad kulturą i mentalnością społeczeństwa Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów. Perspektywa porównawcza
EN title: The Researches into Mentality of Noble Society Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Comparative Perspective

The present article treats the manuscript sources as a sort of archive for researches into mentality. It offers an insight into the intellectual heritage of the culture Polish-Lithuanian nobility. Diaries, manuscript books – silva rerum collected news, own notes, excerpts of letters, newspapers etc. At present this kind of private sources can describe a Lost Word of average noblemen. They describe his mental horizons preserving and internalizing system of traditional values and beliefs. Author presented this kind of sources for mentality’s researches at the background of similar notes and manuscript sources in Europe, showing dynamic progress of the European culture of manuscripts.
Key Words: mentality, Polish-Lithuanian nobility, intellectual heritage, mental horizons, traditional values, beliefs, European culture.

Sayaka KAJI
Zakres przestrzenny Litwy w wyobrażeniu inteligencji wileńskiej na podstawie analizy Wiadomości Brukowych (1816–1822)
EN title: The Geographical Extent of Lithuania perceived by Early 19th Century Intellectuals in Vilnius: Based on the Analyses of Wiadomości Brukowe (Street News)

This article aims to examine the geographical extent of Lithuania in the early 19th century. In the 19th century – from the partitions of the Republic of the Two Nations to the independence of the Republic of Lithuania – the concept of Lithuania drastically changed. Along with it the geographical extent of Lithuania also changed. Current studies of modern Lithuanian history, however, tend to consider 19th-century Lithuania from present viewpoints. The purpose of this article is to show the geographical extent of Lithuania perceived by early 19th-century intellectuals in Vilnius as an example of its geographical and spatial perceptions, which are an important element of the 19th-century understanding of Lithuania.
Key Words: history, early 19th century, Lithuania, Poland, “Wiadomości Brukowe”, geographical extent, intellectuals, spatial perceptions.

„Iskry“ – głos polskiej młodzieży akademickiej na Litwie
EN title: Iskry (The Sparks) – the Voice of Polish Academic Youth in Lithuania

The Polish-Lithuanian relations in the 20-year-long interval period between the World Wars were extremely difficult and controversial. The reasons behind this were of historical and legal nature. The politics of the independent Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940) were mainly aimed at restricting the position of the Polish minority. Under these circumstances the Poles were struggling to sustain their national identity by means of, for example, establishing various organizations of cultural and educational profile. Such initiatives were undertaken within the students’ society at the University of Kovno (Kaunas). Polish students participated vigorously in the university’s activities. Throughout the years, starting with 1927, they were elected to Students’ Representative body and from the 1st of April 1927 they issued their own periodical by the title of “Iskry” (“Žiežirbos”, “The Sparks”).
Key Words: Polish-Lithuanian relations, interwar period in Lithuania, Polish minority in Lithuania, Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940), national identity, “Iskry”, Polish academic youth.

Historians’ Discussion on Nationalism in the Early Years of the 20th Century

This paper, extensively employs articles and studies by Lithuanian historians of the period that are regarded as a heritage of Lithuanian historiography, examines the national ideas and concepts of Lithuanian historians and concentrates on Lithuanian-Polish discussion on questions such as: How they understood nationalism? How they analysed and evaluated political programs for the re-establishment of statehood of Lithuania, i.e. for political autonomy of Lithuania and for Polish-Lithuanian federal state? What kind of arguments they used against the Polish territorial claims toward Vilnius and its district? What are the main features of Klimas’ concept of nationalism?
Key Words: nationalism, history of Lithuania and Poland, early years of the 20th C., Lithuanian historiography, national ideas, Vilnius district problem, Polish territorial claims.

Vilnius Evangelics in the 20th Century

Article is devoted to the history of Vilnius evangelics in the 20th Century. The Vilnius evangelics played a significant role on the Polish protestant map in the interwar period. For the Lutherans inhabiting the North-Eastern area of Poland, Vilnius was the capital of their diocese. In turn, the Calvinists had their own Vilnius Church. It steadily developed throughout the interwar period founding its branches in central Poland. The Vilnius Calvinists never forgot about the tradition of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, keeping contact with the church in the Lithuanian Republic. The custom of Polish and Lithuanian Evangelics’ cooperation was returned to after regaining independence in 1989, which is exemplified by the cooperation of Lutheran Polish and Lithuanian churches.
Key Words: Evangelics, Vilnius district, interwar period, Polish Protestants, Lutherans, Calvinists, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, history of the 20th Century Poland and Lithuania.


Problem czasu w kulturze współczesnej: o niektórych aspektach organizacji współczesnej kultury
EN title: Time in Contemporary Culture: Reflections on Some Aspects of Organization of Contemporary Culture

The article is devoted to the problem of time value in the context of contemporary Western culture and societies. This problem is put into context of whole contemporary culture and civilization. The main attention author gives to the general studies of social norms, values, stereotypes and traditions, known in contemporary Western societies. He points the raising importance of rational time organization of daily needs here. The actualities of real differentiation of daily time allocation are described here as well. The personal abilities to organize the actual time are named as high values in industrialized Western societies, year by year leaving less and less time for the same needs. The everyday stresses, unstable emotions became as the results of such process for a great number of individuals of Western culture. This situation is not so actual just for less industrialized Eastern World cultures and societies.
Key Words: contemporary Western culture, society, time definition, social norms, social values, stereotypes, traditions, industrialization.

The Birth of the Lithuanian Myth in Polish Culture

The article is devoted to the studies of the birth of the Lithuanian myth in Polish Culture. Author points the importance of Lithuania in Polish intellectual life increased since the beginning of the 19th century. The role of Vilnius as one of the most influential research and artistic centers particularly improved. Vilnius University (Uniwersytet Wileński 1803-1832), which influence and achievements spread beyond Lithuanian border for a long time after it had been closed down, played an especially significant role. A lot of interest in Lithuanian history and culture, its languages and folklore developed among Vilnius intellectuals. The tendency was steady: in next decades numerous musical works, scientific research and literary works were created. They were inspired by widely understood Lithuanian culture. Vilnius started living its own life of a legendary capital of romanticism and a town of glorious but tragic history. Owing to a romantic tradition Lithuanian issues became one of the typical features of Polish culture.
Key Words: Lithuanian myth, Lithuanian culture, Polish culture, intellectual life, Vilnius University (1803-1832), Vilnius history, Lithuanian history, language and folklore.

Ziemianie z Litwy w konfrontacji z warszawskim salonem (lata 80. XIX wieku)
EN title: Lithuanian Gentry in Opinion of Warsaw’s Society in the last Decades of the 19th Century

In the last decades of the 19th century in several Warsaw journals were published (in reviews, chronicles and letters) critical opinions about lifestyle and hierarchy of values represented by rich Lithuanian gentry, spending winter months and carnival in the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. In the whole journal critics especially visible was argument concerning the absurdity of the system of value well-known by Lithuanian gentry. My article does not decide veracity and first of all facts concerning mocked and ridiculed by journalists style of behaviour of created by Lithuanian gentry system of value. Accepting however negative image as possible for some part of gentry, I raise a question (for the long time interesting for the social historians) about mechanisms of modernization of the social structures.
Key Words: Lithuanian gentry, Warsaw society, Lithuanian history, Polish history, the last decades of the 19th C., lifestyle, hierarchy of values, modernization of the social structures.

Lenkų švietimas Lietuvoje – tautinės tapatybės išsaugojimo šaltinis po Antrojo pasaulinio karo
EN title: Education in the Polish Language – the Source of Poles’ National Identity in Lithuania after World War II

Presented here research studies are based on source materials point at the importance of education in mother tongue to Poles inhabiting Lithuania in preserving their national identity. At the same time they disprove the thesis about the polonization of Vilnius region, which allegedly took place during the Soviet period as a result of the government’s permission for the existence of schools teaching in Polish. The percentage of students receiving education in the Polish language was always lower than the percentage of Poles inhabiting Lithuania. However, the process of russification was pressed in Vilnius region, which was stopped by regaining of the independence by Lithuania. Poles, who won the right to education in mother tongue in 50-ties, in independent Lithuania opted for a traditional model of school with education in mother tongue as well. More and more students were receiving education in schools teaching in Polish, also the number of school leavers continuing studies at universities was increasing.
Key Words: education, school, the period after the World War II, Polish schools in Lithuania, national identity, mother tongue, Vilnius region, Poland, Lithuania.

Zakonne Wilno. Klasztory męskie. Teksty – książki – biblioteki
EN title: Men’s Orders in Vilnius. Texts – Books – Libraries

The article is devoted to the researches into ‘the texts – books – libraries’ resources in the men’s orders in Vilnius from the 17th – 18th C. The analysis of the source database helps us to reconstruct the picture of the intellectual output of the monasteries in Vilnius. Grand Duchy of Lithuania for many years was the place of working many various monasteries. Vilnius was the most important centre of the monastic life in the Nobles’ Commonwealth in the 18th century. In Vilnius there were orders engaged in education, management of schools, scientific and other publication, and charitable works. In this work great importance was always attached to a book, it helped to cultivate the intellectual traditions of the community. They had an important influence on the spiritual life of the monks.
Key Words: texts, books, libraries, Vilnius from the 17th – 18th C., Grand Duchy of Lithuania, men’s monasteries, monks, intellectual output.

Zakonne Wilno. Klasztory żeńskie. Teksty – książki – biblioteki
EN title: Orderial Vilnius. Nunneries. Texts – Books – Libraries

The article concentrates on the role and importance of the intellectual culture of contemplative female orders in the societies of the onetime Vilnius. The article depicts the use of normative liturgical texts and the preaching creativity in the religious activity of the order. What was emphasized were the books functioning in the characterised environment as well as the individual and collective religious reading matter and the organisation and contents of the monasterial libraries.
Key Words: religious reading matter, contemplative female orders, monasterial libraries, Vilnius.

Ziemie byłego Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego w badaniach Marii Znamierowskiej-Prüfferowej
EN title: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Maria Znamierowska-Prufferowa’s Research

Maria Znamierowska-Prufferowa was born in 1898 in Kybartai, Lithuania. In 1924 she became an assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Ethnography and Ethnology of the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius. It was at her initiative that the Ethnographic Museum here embarked upon the quest to research and to present the culture of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. She had managed to complete a number of field research projects which focused primarily on fishing (tools and methods used by fishermen, as well as their witchcraft and beliefs) and handicraft. This article identifies the theoretical and social contexts of the research, as well as the scope and availability of materials gathered by the scholar. It also discusses the value of the above materials as a source of knowledge for the contemporary ethnologist.
Key Words: Maria Znamierowska-Prufferowa, UMK Ethnographic Museum, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, fishing tools, fishing methods, fishermen witchcraft, fishermen beliefs, fishermen handicraft.

Działalność polskich nielegalnych organizacji kulturalnych w Wilnie na przełomie XIX / XX wieków
EN title: The Activity of Illegal Polish Culture Organizations in Vilnius during the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

The article is devoted to the research of activities of illegal Polish culture organizations in Vilnius during the turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries. The author reminds that Vilnius city and the whole Vilnius land belonged to so-called North-West district of Russian Empire at the beginning of 20th Century. From the time of suppression of January Uprising (1863-1864) the Russian government introduced in this land a severe regime of ruling. They attempted in the same time to suppress the spirit of enslaved nations by means of destruction of their culture. In a consequence the Polish society in Vilnius hasn’t a possibility to act legally in the field of culture and science, therefore it begun to create illegal structures. As the first such attempt was the Committee for building of Adam Mickiewicz monument organised in 1897. It was a manifestation of patriotic stand and aspirations for a liberty of Polish people.
Key Words: Polish illegal organizations, culture, science, Vilnius, Lithuanian history, turn of the 19thand 20th Centuries, North-West district of Russian Empire, liberty of Polish people.

Modernistiniai ieškojimai Vilniaus jaunuomenės leidiniuose „Sniegams tirpstant“ ir „Żórawce“
EN title: Modernistic Searches in the Almanacs of Vilnius Youth “Sniegams tirpstant” and “Żórawce”

The beginning of the 20th century was very interesting time: political, cultural, literary life changed impossible rapidly. New modernistic searches became very attractive for new generation. Young European people were open to modern ideas. Two almanacs, prepared in Vilnius by Lithuanians and Poles, show, that our biggest town was also one of cultural centre, were flourished modern art.
Key Words: the beginning of the 20th century, Lithuanians and Poles literary connections, modern tendencies.

Kaimas ir jo kultūra globaliame pasaulyje: Lietuvos ir Lenkijos paralelės
EN title: Village and its Culture in the Global World: Parallels of Lithuania and Poland

The article is devoted to the research of village and its culture in the global world, investigating the parallels of Lithuania and Poland. The process of globalisation greatly affects Lithuanian and Polish village. Only relatively small the well-off and better-off groups emerge, while the number of poor steadily increases. Moreover, there is a threat that big farms will push out family farms from the agrarian business. The implication is that being left without family farms village will change not only in the sense of social life but in the cultural plane as well. Village deagrarisation has deep economic, social, psychological and cultural consequences. In consequence of the deagrarisation decreases the potential of traditional rural culture. There are lots of threats for cultural heritage – it can gradually decline or transform into front culture. This threat is increased with growth residential steadings in village.
Key Words: Lithuanian village, Polish village, rural culture, global world, globalization, agrarian business, village deagrarisation process, residential steadings.

Lietuvių-lenkų muzikos ryšių klausimu (XX a. antroji pusė)
EN title: On the Links between Lithuanian and Polish Music (the 2nd Half of the 20th Century)

The article is devoted to the investigations on the links between Lithuanian and Polish music from the 2nd half of the 20th C. The years of Soviet occupation that plunged a major part of authors into the grip of social realism formed, however, Lithuanian modernism although one of its branches (with a slighter loss and carrying on the trends of modernism of the interwar period of independence) was developed in the emigration (Bacevičius, Kačinskas, Gaidelis). The ideological inspirations of modernism and principles of compositional technique were borrowed from the neighbours (the Polish composers) by many authors. The ties between Lithuanian and Polish musicologists are worth a separate study: they began with music literature and later visits of Polish musicologists to Lithuania and vice versa made useful personal contacts. Besides, joint events were organised (9 Lithuanian–Polish conferences have been held so far). In the new open world situation Poland remains a significant partner of music and musicological ties for Lithuania.
Key Words: Lithuanian music, Polish music, modernism in music, history of music from the 2nd half of the 20th C. musical composers, musicologists.


Vilniečiai ir Antrasis pasaulinis karas (A Review of: LEWANDOWSKA, Stanisława. Losy Wilnian. Zapis rzeczywistości okupacyjnej. Ludzie, fakty, wydarzenia 1939-1945. Warszawa: Instytut Historii PAN, Wydawnictwo Neriton, 2004)

Apie lenkų ir lietuvių tarpusavio santykių mitus ir stereotipus (A Review of: BUCHOWSKI, Krzysztof. Litwomani i polonizatorzy. Mity, wzajemne postrzeganie i stereotypy w stosunkach polsko-litewskich w pierwszej połowie XX wieku. Białystok: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku, 2006)


I tarptautinis simpoziumas „Lenkija – Lietuva“ („Polska – Litwa“) Torūnės Mikalojaus Koperniko universitete

Mokslinė konferencija, skirta M. L. Rėzos (1776–1840) 230-osioms gimimo metinėms

Konferencija „Weapons, Weaponry and Man. In memoriam Vytautas Kazakevičius“ („Ginklai, ginkluotė ir žmogus. Vytautui Kazakevičiui atminti“)